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Rashawn Ray comments on Philadelphia Blacks' Dilemma during Coronavirus Outbreak featured in InsideSources
African Americans in Philadephia suffer from both the pandemic and violent crimes
Located in News
Ray notes video evidence subverts standard racist playbook
Politico Op-Ed examines Ahmaud Arbery trial
Located in News
Pandemic sees new business formation surge
Prof. John Haltiwanger uses Census data to analyze trends
Located in Research / Selected Research
Racial Disparities in Maternal Mortality
Associates Marian MacDorman and Marie Thoma, with colleagues Eugene DeClerq and Elizabeth Howell examine birth records
Located in Research / Selected Research
Article ReferenceCollaborative Science and Learning as Tools for Climate Change Adaptation Planning
Anticipated impacts from climate change act as stressors that motivate adaptation strategy development. And, while climate science projections extend from the global to regional scale, they can leave significant uncertainty at the local scale. In many jurisdictions, governance and environmental management professionals formulate and distribute information to guide climate change policy and preparation. In many rural or otherwise marginalized areas, however, relationships needed to promote clear understanding of impacts and to tackle cooperative adaptation planning alongside residents are lacking. This article discusses methods used by an interdisciplinary group of scientists to help a small community of rural coastal United States residents enhance their climate resilience. This was accomplished via participatory collaborative science and collaborative learning processes that facilitated relationships of trust among a broad group of stakeholders. Data gathered from our network and analyses of project activities show the benefits of collaboration across a social network representing the social-ecological system. The success of our efforts is evident in five ways: a) in localized application of climate and environmental knowledge, b) in building two-way knowledge across the local/nonlocal divide, c) in incorporating local community values, d) developing trust between residents, scientists, and environmental governance and management professionals, and e) in lessons learned transitioning from a learning to decision-making process. We strongly advocate those working with local groups on adaptation planning efforts begin with methods that help build knowledge, respect, trust, and capacity among residents.
Located in Retired Persons / Michael Paolisso, Ph.D. / Michael Paolisso Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Enhancing socio-ecological resilience in coastal regions through collaborative science, knowledge exchange and social networks: a case study of the Deal Island Peninsula, USA
Collaborative science brings together diverse stakeholders to share knowledge and form networks that in turn can be foundational to policies and practices to increase socio-ecological resilience. In this article, we present results from a collaborative science project that employed collaborative learning methods to develop a network of local, regional, state and academic stakeholders. These stakeholders had little social interaction prior to the project and represented a diversity of views, positions and responsibilities. They shared in common a concern for the effects of climate change on a coastal socio-ecological system and the desire to reduce vulnerabilities and enhance resilience. Through ethnographic and survey methods, we found that collaborative science and learning promoted the exchange of cultural and environmental knowledge and expertise among individuals who previously had no sustained interaction. Stakeholders perceived these exchanges as worthwhile in that they allowed individuals to express viewpoints and share knowledge and expertise, which was seen to have the potential to increase socio-ecological resilience. Our results suggest that social networks can emerge from collaborative science and learning projects and can become formally organized and help foster opportunities to enhance socio-ecological resilience.
Located in Retired Persons / Michael Paolisso, Ph.D. / Michael Paolisso Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Maternal experiences of ethnic discrimination and child cardiometabolic outcomes in the Study of Latino (SOL) Youth
Purpose Limited research has examined maternal experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination in relation to child cardiometabolic health. In this study, we investigated whether maternal experiences of ethnic discrimination were associated with cardiometabolic risk in Hispanic/Latino youth several years later. Methods Our sample included 1146 youth (8–16 years) from the Study of Latino Youth (2012–2014), who were children of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos participants (2008–2011). We used regression models to examine the prospective associations between maternal report of ethnic discrimination in relation to her child's  body mass index  (BMI) z-score,  metabolic syndrome  score (MetS), and high sensitivity  C-reactive protein  (hsCRP) levels 2 years later. Results Maternal ethnic discrimination was associated with youth hsCRP, but not BMI or MetS (P -values >.05). Adjusting for age, nativity, and national background, maternal ethnic discrimination was associated with higher (log) hsCRP levels (β = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.04 to 0.32) in children. This association was robust to adjustment for maternal and household characteristics (β = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.04 to 0.31), as well as  maternal depression  and maternal BMI. Conclusions Maternal ethnic discrimination is associated with inflammation among Hispanic/Latino youth, and not BMI z-score or MetS. Studies are needed to address temporality and pathways.
Located in Retired Persons / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Association of Childhood Asthma With Federal Rental Assistance
Importance   Millions of low-income children in the United States reside in substandard or unaffordable housing. Relieving these burdens may be associated with changes in asthma outcomes. Objectives   To examine whether participation in the US Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD) rental assistance programs is associated with childhood asthma outcomes and to examine whether associations varied by program type (public housing, multifamily housing, or housing choice vouchers). Design, Setting, and Participants   This survey study used data from the nationally representative National Health Interview Survey linked to administrative housing assistance records from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2014. A total of 2992 children aged 0 to 17 years who were currently receiving rental assistance or would enter a rental assistance program within 2 years of survey interview were included. Data analysis was performed from January 15, 2018, to August 31, 2019. Exposures   Participation in rental assistance provided by HUD. Main Outcomes and Measures   Ever been diagnosed with asthma, 12-month history of asthma attack, and 12-month history of visiting an emergency department for the treatment of asthma among program participants vs those waiting to enter a program. Overall participation was examined, and participation in public or multifamily housing was compared with participation in housing choice vouchers. Results   This study included 2992 children who were currently participating in a HUD program or would enter a program within 2 years. Among children with an asthma attack in the past year, participation in a rental assistance program was associated with a reduced use of emergency departments for asthma of 18.2 percentage points (95% CI, −29.7 to −6.6 percentage points). Associations were only found after entrance into a program, suggesting that they were not confounded by time-varying factors. Statistically significant results were found for participation in public or multifamily housing (percentage point change, −36.6; 95% CI, −54.8 to −18.4) but not housing choice vouchers (percentage point change, −7.2; 95% CI, −24.6 to 10.3). No statistically significant evidence of changes in asthma attacks was found (percentage point change, −2.7; 95% CI, −12.3 to 7.0 percentage points). Results for asthma diagnosis were smaller and only significant at the 10% level (−4.3; 95% CI, −8.8 to 0.2 percentage points). Conclusions and Relevance   Among children with a recent asthma attack, rental assistance was associated with less emergency department use. These results may have important implications for the well-being of low-income families and health care system costs.
Located in Retired Persons / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications
Jennifer L. Van Hook, Penn State University, Sociology
Intergenerational Educational Mobility Among Mexican Americans
Located in Coming Up
Aashish Gupta, Harvard University
Household wealth and life expectancy in India: 1990-2016
Located in Coming Up