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Vivian Hoffman studies women's sanitation impact in developing countries
Environmental and social impacts for women deriving from menstrual sanitation practices
Located in Research / Selected Research
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Voting for Democracy: Chile's Plebiscito and the Electoral Participation of a Generation
This paper assesses if voting for democracy affects long-term electoral participation. We study the effects of participating in Chile's 1988 plebiscite, which determined whether democracy would be reinstated after a 15-year long military dictatorship. Taking advantage of individual-level voting data for upwards of 13 million Chileans, we implement an age-based RD design comparing long run registration and turnout rates across marginally eligible and ineligible individuals. We find that Plebiscite eligibility (participation) significantly increased electoral turnout three decades later, reaching 1.8 (3.3) percentage points in the 2017 Presidential election. These effects are robust to different specifications and distinctive to the 1988 referendum. We discuss potential mechanisms concluding that the scale of initial mobilization explains the estimated effects. We find that plebiscite eligibility induced a sizable share of less educated voters to register to vote compared to eligibles in other upstream elections. Since less educated voters tended to support Chile's governing left-wing coalition, we argue that the plebiscite contributed to the emergence of one party rule the twenty years following democratization.
Located in MPRC People / Sergio Urzua, Ph.D. / Sergio Urzua Publications
Article ReferenceWage Inequality in Latin America: Learning from Matched Employer-Employee Data
Inequality in Latin America fell substantially in the early 2000s. In this paper, we take advantage of administrative matched employee-employed data in Brazil, Chile and Ecuador to examine whether these inequality trends held in the formal sector, as well. We document a significant decrease in the log variance of earnings in Brazil and Ecuador in the early 2000s, whereas inequality in Chile between 2008 and 2015 remained largely flat. In this context, we find that inequality among salaried workers is largely a between-firm phenomenon across these three countries. We expand on our descriptive analysis and estimate an additive worker and firm fixed effects model to understand the driving factors behind inequality in the region. We find a significant decline in between-firm inequality in Brazil and a modest one in Chile. We last focus our attention on the commodities and manufacturing sectors, which were directly exposed to two large external shocks, the commodity-boom and the ''China Shock". We find an increase in inequality in the former sector accompanied by an reduction in inequality in the latter across the region.
Located in MPRC People / Sergio Urzua, Ph.D. / Sergio Urzua Publications
WANG Feng, University of California, Irvine (UCI)
Fiscal Implications of Population Aging and Economic Change in China
Located in Coming Up
Washington Post policing story cites Joseph Richardson
Police 'jump outs' target mostly Black youth
Located in News
What If It Were You: Race, Class & A Flawed Criminal Justice System
Panelists: Steve Lopez, Dr. Jack Monell, and The Honorable Alexander Williams, Jr.
Located in Coming Up
File Troff document (with manpage macros)When and Where Does Achievement Inequality Grow? Ecology, the City and Social Disorganization
Odis Johnson Jr., University of Maryland; 2012-012
Located in Research / Working Papers / WP Documents
File Troff document (with manpage macros)When and Where Does Achievement Inequality Grow? Ecology, the City and Social Disorganization
Odis Johnson Jr., University of Maryland; 2014-007
Located in Research / Working Papers / WP Documents
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Who Experiences Leisure Deficits? Mothers' Marital Status and Leisure Time
The authors used the 2003 to 2012 American Time Use Survey to examine marital status variation in mothers' leisure time. They found that never‐married mothers have more total leisure but less high‐quality leisure when compared with married mothers. Never‐married mothers' leisure is concentrated in passive and socially isolated activities that offer fewer social and health benefits. Black single mothers have the highest amount of socially isolated leisure, particularly watching television alone. Results suggest that differences in the context and type of leisure are salient dimensions of the divergent and stratified life conditions of married, divorced, and single mothers.
Located in MPRC People / Liana C. Sayer, Ph.D. / Liana Sayer Publications
File Troff document (with manpage macros)Women’s Sequencing of First Births Relative to First Substantial Employment Before and After the 1990’s Welfare Reforms
Michael S. Rendall, University of Maryland and Rachel Shattuck, U.S. Census Bureau; 2016-002
Located in Research / Working Papers / WP Documents