Skip to content. | Skip to navigation

Personal tools


You are here: Home

Search results

25 items matching your search terms.
Filter the results.
Item type

New items since

Sort by relevance · date (newest first) · alphabetically
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Utilization of essential preventive health services among Asians after the implementation of the preventive services provisions of the Affordable Care Act
Utilization of cost-effective essential preventive health services increased after the implementation of the Affordable Care Act’s (ACA) provision that non-grandfathered private insurers provide cost-effective preventive services without cost sharing in 2010. Little is known, however, whether this change is also observed among Asians in the US. We examined patterns of preventive services utilization among Asian subgroups relative to non-Latino whites (whites) after the implementation of the ACA’s preventive services provisions. Using 2013–2016 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data, we examined utilization trends in preventive services among Asian Indians, Chinese, Filipinos, and other Asians relative to whites. We also ran logistic regression models to estimate the likelihood of having received each of the seven essential preventive services (routine checkups, flu vaccinations, cholesterol screenings, blood pressure checkups, Papanicolaou “pap” tests, mammograms, and colorectal cancer screenings). Compared to whites, Asians had higher rates of utilization of routine checkups, cholesterol screenings, and flu vaccinations, but they had lower utilization rates of blood pressure checkups, pap tests, and mammograms. The patterns of preventive services utilization differed across the Asian subgroups. All Asian subgroups, except for Filipinos, were less likely to have pap tests or mammograms than whites. Moreover, we observed a decreasing trend in having pap tests, mammograms, or colorectal cancer screenings among all Asian subgroups between 2013 and 2016. Our findings suggest that there are low cancer screening rates across Asian subgroups. This indicates the need for programs tailored to specific Asian subgroups to improve cancer screening.
Located in MPRC People / Jie Chen, Ph.D. / Jie Chen Publications
Article ReferenceThe rising marriage mortality gap among Whites
Although the decline in marriage has been cited as a possible contributor to the “despair” afflicting marginalized White communities, these studies have not directly considered mortality by marital status. This paper uses complete death certificate data from the Mortality Multiple Cause Files with American Community Survey data to examine age-specific mortality rates for married and non-married people from 2007 to 2017. The overall rise in White mortality is limited almost exclusively to those who are not married, for men and women. By comparison, mortality for Blacks and Hispanics has fallen or remained flat regardless of marital status (except for young, single Hispanic men). Analysis by education level shows death rates have risen most for Whites with the lowest education, but have also increased for those with high school or some college. Because mortality has risen faster for unmarried Whites at all but the lowest education levels, there has been an increase in the marriage mortality ratio. Mortality differentials are an increasingly important component of the social hierarchy associated with marital status.
Located in MPRC People / Philip Cohen, Ph.D. / Philip Cohen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Life and Death in the American City: Men’s Life Expectancy in 25 Major American Cities From 1990 to 2015
The past several decades have witnessed growing geographic disparities in life expectancy within the United States, yet the mortality experience of U.S. cities has received little attention. We examine changes in men’s life expectancy at birth for the 25 largest U.S. cities from 1990 to 2015, using mortality data with city of residence identifiers. We reveal remarkable increases in life expectancy for several U.S. cities. Men’s life expectancy increased by 13.7 years in San Francisco and Washington, DC, and by 11.8 years in New York between 1990 and 2015, during which overall U.S. life expectancy increased by just 4.8 years. A significant fraction of gains in the top-performing cities relative to the U.S. average is explained by reductions in HIV/AIDS and homicide during the 1990s and 2000s. Although black men tended to see larger life expectancy gains than white men in most cities, changes in socioeconomic and racial population composition also contributed to these trends.
Located in MPRC People / Michel Boudreaux, Ph.D. / Michel Boudreaux Publications
Article ReferenceGenetic Clustering Analysis for HIV Infection among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Nigeria
Background:  The  HIV  epidemic continues to grow among  MSM  in countries across sub-Saharan Africa including  Nigeria . To inform prevention efforts, we used a  phylogenetic cluster  method to characterize  HIV  genetic clusters and factors associated with cluster formation among  MSM  living with  HIV  in  Nigeria . Methods:  We analyzed  HIV -1 pol sequences from 417  MSM  living with  HIV  enrolled in the TRUST/RV368 cohort between 2013 and 2017 in Abuja and Lagos,  Nigeria . A genetically linked cluster was defined among participants whose sequences had pairwise genetic distance of 1.5% or less. Binary and multinomial logistic regressions were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors associated with  HIV  genetic cluster membership and size. Results:  Among 417  MSM  living with  HIV , 153 (36.7%) were genetically linked. Participants with higher viral load (AOR = 1.72 95% CI: 1.04–2.86), no female partners (AOR = 3.66; 95% CI: 1.97–6.08), and self-identified as male sex (compared with self-identified as bigender) (AOR = 3.42; 95% CI: 1.08–10.78) had higher odds of being in a genetic cluster. Compared with unlinked participants,  MSM  who had high school education (AOR = 23.84; 95% CI: 2.66–213.49), were employed (AOR = 3.41; 95% CI: 1.89–10.70), had bacterial sexually transmitted infections (AOR = 3.98; 95% CI: 0.89–17.22) and were not taking antiretroviral therapy (AOR = 6.61; 95% CI: 2.25–19.37) had higher odds of being in a large cluster (size > 4). Conclusion:  Comprehensive  HIV  prevention packages should include behavioral and biological components, including early diagnosis and treatment of both  HIV  and bacterial sexually transmitted infections to optimally reduce the risk of  HIV  transmission and acquisition.
Located in MPRC People / Hongjie Liu, Ph.D. / Hongjie Liu Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)The Coming Divorce Decline
This article analyzes U.S. divorce trends over the past decade and considers their implications for future divorce rates. Modeling women’s odds of divorce from 2008 to 2017 using marital events data from the American Community Survey, I find falling divorce rates with or without adjustment for demographic covariates. Age-specific divorce rates show that the trend is driven by younger women, which is consistent with longer term trends showing uniquely high divorce rates among people born in the Baby Boom period. Finally, I analyze the characteristics of newly married women and estimate the trend in their likelihood of divorcing based on the divorce models. The results show falling divorce risks for more recent marriages. The accumulated evidence thus points toward continued decline in divorce rates. The United States is progressing toward a system in which marriage is rarer and more stable than it was in the past.
Located in MPRC People / Philip Cohen, Ph.D. / Philip Cohen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Availability of Services Related to Achieving Pregnancy in U.S. Publicly Funded Family Planning Clinics
Background Recognizing that quality family planning services should include services to help clients who want to become pregnant, the objective of our analysis was to examine the distribution of services related to achieving pregnancy at publicly funded family planning clinics in the United States. Methods A nationally representative sample of publicly funded clinics was surveyed in 2013–2014 (n = 1615). Clinic administrators were asked about several clinical services and screenings related to achieving pregnancy: basic infertility services, reproductive life plan assessment, screening for body mass index, screening for sexually transmitted diseases, provision of natural family planning services, infertility treatment, and primary care services. The percentage of clinics offering each of these services was compared by Title X funding status; prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated after adjusting for clinic characteristics. Results Compared to non-Title X clinics, Title X clinics were more likely to offer reproductive life plan assessment (adjusted PR [aPR], 1.62; 95% CI, 1.42–1.84), body mass index screening for men (aPR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01–1.21), screening for sexually transmitted diseases (aPRs ranged from 1.21 to 1.37), and preconception health care for men (aPR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01–1.20). Title X clinics were less likely to offer infertility treatment (aPR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.40–0.74) and primary care services (aPR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.68–0.80) and were just as likely to offer basic infertility services, preconception health care services for women, natural family planning, and body mass index screening in women. Conclusions The availability of selected services related to achieving pregnancy differed by Title X status. A follow-up assessment after publication of national family planning recommendations is underway.
Located in MPRC People / Marie Thoma, Ph.D. / Marie Thoma Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Black–White Disparities in Preterm Birth: Geographic, Social, and Health Determinants
Reducing racial/ethnic disparities in preterm birth is a priority for U.S. public health programs. The study objective was to quantify the relative contribution of geographic, sociodemographic, and health determinants to the black, non-Hispanic and white, non-Hispanic preterm birth disparity. Methods Cross-sectional 2016 U.S. birth certificate data (analyzed in 2018–2019) were used. Black–white differences in covariate distributions and preterm birth and very preterm birth rates were examined. Decomposition methods for nonlinear outcomes based on logistic regression were used to quantify the extent to which black–white differences in covariates contributed to preterm birth and very preterm birth disparities. Results Covariate differences between black and white women were found within each category of geographic, sociodemographic, and health characteristics. However, not all covariates contributed substantially to the disparity. Close to 38% of the preterm birth and 31% of the very preterm birth disparity could be explained by black–white covariate differences. The largest contributors to the disparity included maternal education (preterm birth, 11.3%; very preterm birth, 9.0%), marital status/paternity acknowledgment (preterm birth, 13.8%; very preterm birth, 14.7%), source of payment for delivery (preterm birth, 6.2%; very preterm birth, 3.2%), and hypertension in pregnancy (preterm birth, 9.9%; very preterm birth, 8.3%). Interpregnancy interval contributed a more sizable contribution to the disparity (preterm birth, 6.2%, very preterm birth, 6.0%) in sensitivity analyses restricted to all nonfirstborn births. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that the known portion of the disparity in preterm birth is driven by sociodemographic and preconception/prenatal health factors. Public health programs to enhance social support and preconception care, specifically focused on hypertension, may provide an efficient approach for reducing the racial gap in preterm birth.
Located in MPRC People / Marie Thoma, Ph.D. / Marie Thoma Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)School punishment and interpersonal exclusion: Rejection, withdrawal, and separation from friends
Abstract School suspension is a common form of punishment in the United States that is disproportionately concentrated among racial minority and disadvantaged youth. In labeling theories, the implication is that such stigmatized sanctions may lead to interpersonal exclusion from normative others and to greater involvement with antisocial peers. I test this implication in the context of rural schools by 1) examining the association between suspension and discontinuity in same-grade friendship ties, focusing on three mechanisms implied in labeling theories: rejection, withdrawal, and physical separation; 2) testing the association between suspension and increased involvement with antisocial peers; and 3) assessing whether these associations are stronger in smaller schools. Consistent with labeling theories, I find suspension associated with greater discontinuity in friendship ties, based on changes in the respondents’ friendship preferences and self-reports of their peers. My findings are also consistent with changes in perceptual measures of exclusion. Additionally, I find suspension associated with greater involvement with substance-using peers. Some but not all of these associations are stronger in smaller rural schools. Given the disproportionate distribution of suspension, my findings indicate that an excessive reliance on this exclusionary form of punishment may foster inequality among these youth.
Located in MPRC People / Wade C Jacobsen, Ph.D. / Wade Jacobsen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Beyond birth outcomes: Interpregnancy interval and injury-related infant mortality
Background Several studies have examined the association between IPI and birth outcomes, but few have explored the association between interpregnancy interval (IPI) and postnatal outcomes. Objective We examined the association between IPI and injury-related infant mortality, a leading cause of postneonatal mortality. Methods We used 2011-2015 US period-linked birth-infant death vital statistics data to generate a multiyear birth cohort of non-first-born singleton births (N = 9 782 029). IPI was defined as the number of months between a live birth and the start of the pregnancy leading to the next live birth. Causes of death in the first year of life were identified using ICD-10 codes. Hazard ratios (HR) for IPI categories were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for birth order, county poverty level, and maternal characteristics (marital status, race/ethnicity, education, age at previous birth). Results After adjustment, overall infant mortality (48.1 per 10 000 births) was higher for short and long IPIs compared with IPI 18-23 months (reference): <6, aHR 1.61, 95\% CI 1.54, 1.68; 6-11, aHR 1.22, 95\% CI 1.17, 1.26; and 60+ months, aHR 1.12, 95\% CI 1.08, 1.16. In comparison, the risk of injury-related infant mortality (4.4 per 10 000 births) decreased with longer IPIs: <6, aHR 1.77, 95\% CI 1.55, 2.01; 6-11, aHR 1.41, 95\% CI 1.25, 1.59; 12-17, aHR 1.25, 95\% CI 1.10, 1.41; 24-59, aHR 0.78, 95\% CI 0.69, 0.87; and 60+ months, aHR 0.55, 95\% CI 0.48, 0.62. Conclusion Unlike overall infant mortality, injury-related infant mortality decreased with IPI length. While injury-related deaths are rare, these patterns suggest that the timing between births may be a marker of risk for fatal infant injuries. The first year postpartum may be an ideal time for the delivery of evidence-based injury prevention programmes as well as family planning services.
Located in MPRC People / Marie Thoma, Ph.D. / Marie Thoma Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Diverse community contexts and community resources for sexual and gender minority youth: A mixed-methods study
Abstract Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth face marginalization and oppression on the basis of their SGM identity, and they often lack traditional support systems to deal with these minority stressors. SGM community resources may alleviate the impact of the stressors that SGM youth face, but these have not been studied in relation to the size and climate of SGM youth's communities. This mixed-methods study examined the relationship between community size and the climate toward SGM individuals and the availability and utilization of SGM community resources. Survey findings indicate that nonmetropolitan communities were associated with less availability and utilization; hostile communities were associated with lower availability only. Interview findings reveal nuanced complexities on the relationship between community and resource provision. Implications for future research and community practice are discussed.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications