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Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)School punishment and interpersonal exclusion: Rejection, withdrawal, and separation from friends
Abstract School suspension is a common form of punishment in the United States that is disproportionately concentrated among racial minority and disadvantaged youth. In labeling theories, the implication is that such stigmatized sanctions may lead to interpersonal exclusion from normative others and to greater involvement with antisocial peers. I test this implication in the context of rural schools by 1) examining the association between suspension and discontinuity in same-grade friendship ties, focusing on three mechanisms implied in labeling theories: rejection, withdrawal, and physical separation; 2) testing the association between suspension and increased involvement with antisocial peers; and 3) assessing whether these associations are stronger in smaller schools. Consistent with labeling theories, I find suspension associated with greater discontinuity in friendship ties, based on changes in the respondents’ friendship preferences and self-reports of their peers. My findings are also consistent with changes in perceptual measures of exclusion. Additionally, I find suspension associated with greater involvement with substance-using peers. Some but not all of these associations are stronger in smaller rural schools. Given the disproportionate distribution of suspension, my findings indicate that an excessive reliance on this exclusionary form of punishment may foster inequality among these youth.
Located in MPRC People / Wade C Jacobsen, Ph.D. / Wade Jacobsen Publications
Understanding and Predicting Crime “Hot Spots”
Former felons share knowledge about how (and where) criminals plan their crimes
Located in Research / Selected Research
Problem Behaviors: Intergenerational Continuity or Resilience?
The Rochester Intergenerational Study examines patterns in behavior over three generations
Located in Research / Selected Research
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Punishment and Inequality at an Early Age: Exclusionary Discipline in Elementary School
We advance current knowledge of school punishment by examining (1) the prevalence of exclusionary discipline in elementary school, (2) racial disparities in exclusionary discipline in elementary school, and (3) the association between exclusionary discipline and aggressive behavior in elementary school. Using child and parent reports from the Fragile Families Study, we estimate that more than one in ten children born between 1998 and 2000 in large US cities were suspended or expelled by age nine, when most were in third grade. We also find extreme racial disparity; about 40 percent of non-Hispanic black boys were suspended or expelled, compared to 8 percent of non-Hispanic white or other-race boys. Disparities are largely due to differences in children’s school and home environments rather than to behavior problems. Next, consistent with social stress and strain theories, we find suspension or expulsion associated with increased aggressive behavior in elementary school. This association does not vary by race but is robust to a rich set of covariates, within-individual fixed effects, and matching methods. In conjunction with what we find for racial disparities, our results imply that school discipline policies relying heavily on exclusionary punishment may be fostering childhood inequality.
Located in MPRC People / Wade C Jacobsen, Ph.D. / Wade Jacobsen Publications
What If It Were You: Race, Class & A Flawed Criminal Justice System
Panelists: Steve Lopez, Dr. Jack Monell, and The Honorable Alexander Williams, Jr.
Located in Coming Up
Associates win Early Stage Research grants
Two MPRC Faculty Associates selected by UMD Division of Research for Tier 1 grants
Located in News
Maimon Investigates New Ways to Stop Cyber Attacks
Improved network security is only part of the solution
Located in News
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Does gang membership pay? Illegal and legal earnings through emerging adulthood
Gang membership is believed to impede success in the legitimate economic market while simultaneously supporting success in the illegal market. We extend the study of the economic effects of gang membership by using a within-and between-individual analytic design, decomposing gang membership into multiple statuses (i.e., entering a gang,continuously in a gang, leaving a gang, and inactive gang membership), examining legal and illegal earnings simultaneously, and accounting for factors endogenous to gang membership that may contribute to economic achievement.By using panel data from 1,213 individuals who participated in the Pathways to Desistance Study to conduct a multi level path analysis, we find that active gang membership status is unrelated to legal earnings. Alternatively,entering a gang is associated with increased illegal earnings, attributable to changes in delinquent peers and drug use, whereas leaving a gang has a direct relationship with decreased illegal earnings. Our results indicate that the positive economic effect of gang membership (i.e., illegal earnings and total earnings) is short-lived and that, on balance,the sum of the gang membership experience does not “pay”in terms of overall earnings.
Located in MPRC People / Jean McGloin, Ph.D. / Jean McGloin Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Together despite the odds: Explaining racial and ethnic heterogeneity in union dissolution after incarceration
The U.S. incarceration rate rose dramatically over the past 45 years, increasing the number of marriages and cohabiting unions disrupted by a jail or prison stay. But as some have pointed out, not all unions dissolve as a result of incarceration, and there seems to be racial–ethnic variation in this tendency, with Blacks displaying higher rates of dissolution than Whites and Hispanics. Yet it is unclear what explains racial–ethnic differences in union dissolution among the incarcerated. Drawing on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), we examine why racial–ethnic differences in union dissolution exist among a sample of individuals who had a marital or a cohabiting union interrupted by an incarceration spell. In doing so, we draw on social exchange theory and structural and cultural theories to suggest that racial–ethnic disparities in union dissolution are explained by differential exposure to protective relationship characteristics. The results of Cox hazard models reveal that Blacks have significantly higher hazards of union dissolution than do Whites and Hispanics. These results also indicate that being married, having a child together, having full‐time employment, a longer union duration, and a shorter incarceration spell may protect against dissolution and that these factors account, in part, for the greater risk of dissolution among Blacks relative to Whites and Hispanics.
Located in MPRC People / Wade C Jacobsen, Ph.D. / Wade Jacobsen Publications