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Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)A Credible Messenger: The Role of the Violence Intervention Specialist in the Lives of Young Black Male Survivors of Violence
For hospital-based violence intervention programs (HVIPs), gun violence intervention and the treatment of firearm-related injuries for male survivors require a  sui generis  network of team members that includes physicians, caseworkers, mental health care providers, and violence intervention specialists (VIS). The VIS can play a vital part in the success of HVIPs, but there is no published literature about the roles, functions, and best practices of this position. A case study conducted at the Capital Region Violence Intervention Program, an emerging HVIP at the University of Maryland Prince George's Hospital Center, demonstrates the importance of the VIS fostering deep levels of interpersonal connection with survivors of violent injury. The VIS actively seeks to increase the rate of psychosocial services usage. Due to cultural competence, street experience, and a willingness to share lived experiences as a survivor of violent injury, the VIS has credibility when discussing mental health symptomatology and usage of services for young Black male survivors of violence. The relationship between the VIS and male survivors of violent injury markedly enhanced the provision of trauma-informed care, peer support, and mentoring. This case study demonstrates the importance of marshalling the shared lived experiences of the VIS to increase trust and perceived credibility by young Black male survivors of gun violence as a means to decrease trauma recidivism.
Located in MPRC People / Joseph Richardson, Ph.D. / Joseph Richardson Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)A Longitudinal Assessment of Parental Caregiving and Blood Pressure Trajectories: Findings from the China Health and Nutrition Survey for Women 2000–2011
Background Few studies have investigated the consequences of caregiving on the objectively measured physiological health outcomes in China. This study used population-based longitudinal data to examine the association between parental caregiving and blood pressure among Chinese women. Method This is a retrospective analysis of 2586 women using five waves of data from the Ever-Married Women Survey component of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2000, 2004, 2006, 2009, and 2011). We applied growth curve models to examine trajectories of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) associated with parental caregiving among women in China. Results In multivariable analyses of blood pressure trajectories adjusting for potential confounders, parental caregivers had higher systolic (β-coefficient (β) = 1.16; p ≤ 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.75; p ≤ 0.01) compared with non-caregivers across multiple waves. Caregivers and non-caregivers had similar levels of systolic blood pressure at baseline, but caregivers exhibited relatively higher growth rate over time. Diastolic blood pressure was much higher among caregivers at the baseline measure, and across time relative to non-caregivers. Moreover, low-intensity but not high-intensity caregivers showed higher growth rate compared with non-caregivers for both SBP and DBP. Discussion Our results demonstrate the negative cardiovascular consequences of parental caregiving among Chinese women. Findings from the study can be used to develop future stress management interventions to decrease hypertension risk within women who provide care to their parents.
Located in MPRC People / Sunmin Lee, Sc.D. / Sunmin Lee Publications
Affordable Care for All?
Faculty associate Jerome Dugan investigates the relationship between socioeconomic status, health insurance coverage, and affordable quality care
Located in Research / Selected Research
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Air Quality Assessment of Volatile Organic Compounds Near a Concrete Block Plant and Traffic in Bladensburg, Maryland
A concrete block plant located in Bladensburg, Maryland, wants to expand to include a concrete batching plant on the same property. This expansion could further degrade air quality and impact the health of vulnerable residents. The purpose of this study is to provide information on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) levels near residential areas close to commuter traffic and industrial activity associated with the concrete plant. Air quality monitoring was conducted in the community at five sites: (1) Kingdom Missionary Baptist Church, (2) Bladensburg Waterfront Park, (3) Confluence area, (4) Bladensburg Elementary School, and (5) Hillcrest Apartment Complex by using the Atmotube, a wearable, real-time sensor that can measure total VOCs. Sampling was conducted in 30-minute periods to capture morning onpeak, afternoon off-peak, and evening on-peak periods. Traffic counts were also conducted at the sites mentioned earlier to evaluate vehicular activity. Average 30-minute values for cars ranged from 8.33 to 1295.33 cars, whereas mean truck values ranged from 0.00 to 137.67 trucks across all sites. The highest average car count of 1295.33 cars was observed at the confluence area. Mean VOCs concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 0.54 ppm across the monitoring locations. The maximum average VOCs level of 0.54 ppm was observed at Kingdom Missionary Baptist Church on Saturday. Also, the mean VOCs levels observed at the church (0.54 and 0.31 ppm) were higher compared with other locations on Saturday. Our results revealed spatial variations of VOCs levels across all locations. There were higher total VOCs levels at the church, which is the closest location to the concrete block plant.
Located in MPRC People / Robin Puett, Ph.D. / Robin Puett Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Air Quality Assessment of Volatile Organic Compounds Near a Concrete Block Plant and Traffic in Bladensburg, Maryland
A concrete block plant located in Bladensburg, Maryland, wants to expand to include a concrete batching plant on the same property. This expansion could further degrade air quality and impact the health of vulnerable residents. The purpose of this study is to provide information on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) levels near residential areas close to commuter traffic and industrial activity associated with the concrete plant. Air quality monitoring was conducted in the community at five sites: (1) Kingdom Missionary Baptist Church, (2) Bladensburg Waterfront Park, (3) Confluence area, (4) Bladensburg Elementary School, and (5) Hillcrest Apartment Complex by using the Atmotube, a wearable, real-time sensor that can measure total VOCs. Sampling was conducted in 30-minute periods to capture morning onpeak, afternoon off-peak, and evening on-peak periods. Traffic counts were also conducted at the sites mentioned earlier to evaluate vehicular activity. Average 30-minute values for cars ranged from 8.33 to 1295.33 cars, whereas mean truck values ranged from 0.00 to 137.67 trucks across all sites. The highest average car count of 1295.33 cars was observed at the confluence area. Mean VOCs concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 0.54 ppm across the monitoring locations. The maximum average VOCs level of 0.54 ppm was observed at Kingdom Missionary Baptist Church on Saturday. Also, the mean VOCs levels observed at the church (0.54 and 0.31 ppm) were higher compared with other locations on Saturday. Our results revealed spatial variations of VOCs levels across all locations. There were higher total VOCs levels at the church, which is the closest location to the concrete block plant.
Located in MPRC People / Sacoby Wilson, Ph.D., M.S. / Sacoby Wilson Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Air Quality Assessment of Volatile Organic Compounds Near a Concrete Block Plant and Traffic in Bladensburg, Maryland
A concrete block plant located in Bladensburg, Maryland, wants to expand to include a concrete batching plant on the same property. This expansion could further degrade air quality and impact the health of vulnerable residents. The purpose of this study is to provide information on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) levels near residential areas close to commuter traffic and industrial activity associated with the concrete plant. Air quality monitoring was conducted in the community at five sites: (1) Kingdom Missionary Baptist Church, (2) Bladensburg Waterfront Park, (3) Confluence area, (4) Bladensburg Elementary School, and (5) Hillcrest Apartment Complex by using the Atmotube, a wearable, real-time sensor that can measure total VOCs. Sampling was conducted in 30-minute periods to capture morning onpeak, afternoon off-peak, and evening on-peak periods. Traffic counts were also conducted at the sites mentioned earlier to evaluate vehicular activity. Average 30-minute values for cars ranged from 8.33 to 1295.33 cars, whereas mean truck values ranged from 0.00 to 137.67 trucks across all sites. The highest average car count of 1295.33 cars was observed at the confluence area. Mean VOCs concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 0.54 ppm across the monitoring locations. The maximum average VOCs level of 0.54 ppm was observed at Kingdom Missionary Baptist Church on Saturday. Also, the mean VOCs levels observed at the church (0.54 and 0.31 ppm) were higher compared with other locations on Saturday. Our results revealed spatial variations of VOCs levels across all locations. There were higher total VOCs levels at the church, which is the closest location to the concrete block plant.
Located in MPRC People / Devon Payne-Sturges, Dr.P.H. / Devon Payne-Sturges Publications
Amir Sapkota, Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, School of Public Health
Climate Change and Impaired Population Health – Perspectives From Countries on Opposite Ends of the Economic Spectrum
Located in Coming Up
Article ReferenceAnalyzing Associations Between Chronic Disease Prevalence and Neighborhood Quality Through Google Street View Images
Deep learning and, specifically, convoltional neural networks (CNN) represent a class of powerful models that facilitate the understanding of many problems in computer vision. When combined with a reasonable amount of data, CNNs can outperform traditional models for many tasks, including image classification. In this work, we utilize these powerful tools with imagery data collected through Google Street View images to perform virtual audits of neighborhood characteristics. We further investigate different architectures for chronic disease prevalence regression through networks that are applied to sets of images rather than single images. We show quantitative results and demonstrate that our proposed architectures outperform the traditional regression approaches.
Located in MPRC People / Quynh Nguyen, Ph.D., M.S.P.H. / Quynh Nguyen Publications
Article ReferenceAssessing the Role of Health Behaviors, Socioeconomic Status, and Cumulative Stress for Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Obesity
Objective: This study aimed to examine the explanatory role of health behaviors, socioeconomic position (SEP), and psychosocial stressors on racial/ethnic obesity disparities in a multiethnic and multiracial sample of adults. Methods: Using data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (2001-2003), Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis was conducted to quantify the extent to which health behaviors (fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity), SEP, and cumulative stressors (e.g., perceived discrimination, financial strain) each explained differences in obesity prevalence in Black, US-born Hispanic, and non-US-born Hispanic compared with non-Hispanic White participants. Results: SEP and health behaviors did not explain obesity differences between racial/ethnic minorities and White individuals. Having high levels of stress in four or more domains explained 4.46% of the differences between Black and White individuals, whereas having high levels of stress in three domains significantly explained 14.13% of differences between US-born Hispanic and White. Together, the predictors explained less than 20% of differences between any racial/ethnic minority group and White individuals. Conclusions: Exposure to stressors may play a role in obesity disparities, particularly among Black and US-born Hispanic individuals. Other obesity-related risk factors need to be examined to understand the underlying mechanisms explaining obesity disparities.
Located in MPRC People / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Association of Childhood Asthma With Federal Rental Assistance
Importance   Millions of low-income children in the United States reside in substandard or unaffordable housing. Relieving these burdens may be associated with changes in asthma outcomes. Objectives   To examine whether participation in the US Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD) rental assistance programs is associated with childhood asthma outcomes and to examine whether associations varied by program type (public housing, multifamily housing, or housing choice vouchers). Design, Setting, and Participants   This survey study used data from the nationally representative National Health Interview Survey linked to administrative housing assistance records from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2014. A total of 2992 children aged 0 to 17 years who were currently receiving rental assistance or would enter a rental assistance program within 2 years of survey interview were included. Data analysis was performed from January 15, 2018, to August 31, 2019. Exposures   Participation in rental assistance provided by HUD. Main Outcomes and Measures   Ever been diagnosed with asthma, 12-month history of asthma attack, and 12-month history of visiting an emergency department for the treatment of asthma among program participants vs those waiting to enter a program. Overall participation was examined, and participation in public or multifamily housing was compared with participation in housing choice vouchers. Results   This study included 2992 children who were currently participating in a HUD program or would enter a program within 2 years. Among children with an asthma attack in the past year, participation in a rental assistance program was associated with a reduced use of emergency departments for asthma of 18.2 percentage points (95% CI, −29.7 to −6.6 percentage points). Associations were only found after entrance into a program, suggesting that they were not confounded by time-varying factors. Statistically significant results were found for participation in public or multifamily housing (percentage point change, −36.6; 95% CI, −54.8 to −18.4) but not housing choice vouchers (percentage point change, −7.2; 95% CI, −24.6 to 10.3). No statistically significant evidence of changes in asthma attacks was found (percentage point change, −2.7; 95% CI, −12.3 to 7.0 percentage points). Results for asthma diagnosis were smaller and only significant at the 10% level (−4.3; 95% CI, −8.8 to 0.2 percentage points). Conclusions and Relevance   Among children with a recent asthma attack, rental assistance was associated with less emergency department use. These results may have important implications for the well-being of low-income families and health care system costs.
Located in MPRC People / Michel Boudreaux, Ph.D. / Michel Boudreaux Publications