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Article ReferenceComparing National Probability and Community‑Based Samples of Sexual Minority Adults: Implications and Recommendations for Sampling and Measurement
Scientific evidence regarding sexual minority populations has generally come from studies based on two types of samples: community-derived samples and probability samples. Probability samples are lauded as the gold standard of population research for their ability to represent the population of interest. However, while studies using community samples lack generalizability, they are often better able to assess population-specific concerns (e.g., minority stress) and are collected more rapidly, allowing them to be more responsive to changing population dynamics. Given these advantages, many sexual minority population studies rely on community samples. To identify how probability and community samples of sexual minorities are similar and different, we compared participant characteristics from two companion samples from the  Generations Study , each designed with the same demographic profile of U.S. sexual minority adults in mind. The first sample was recruited for a national probability survey, whereas the second was recruited for a multicommunity sample from four U.S. cities. We examined sociodemographic differences between the samples. Although there were several statistical differences between samples, the effect sizes were small for sociodemographic characteristics that defined the sample inclusion criteria: sex assigned at birth, race/ethnicity, and age cohort. The samples differed across other characteristics: bisexual respondents, respondents with less education, and those living in non-urban areas were underrepresented in the community sample. Our findings offer insights for recruiting community samples of sexual minority populations and for measuring sexual identity on probability surveys. They also bolster confidence in well-designed community samples as sources for data on sexual minority populations.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Confronting Racism in Environmental Health Sciences
Commentary by Devon Payne-Sturges and others presents recommendations for a path toward eliminating racial inequities
Located in Research / Selected Research
Connecting the Dots: Reproductive Health Research at UMD
MPRC Special Workshop
Located in Coming Up
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Connections and Divergence between Public Health and Built Environment—A Scoping Review
Abstract: Public health and built environment design have a long-intertwined history of promoting a healthy quality of life. They emerged with the common goal of preventing infectious disease outbreaks in urban areas and improving occupants’ living conditions. In recent years, however, the two disciplines have become less engaged and with each developing a distinct focus. To respond to this disconnection, a systematic review was conducted to identify the connection and divergence between public health and built environment design and planning. This paper aims to establish a context for understanding the connections, synergies, and divergence between public health and built environment design disciplines. Further, the four main health factors in the built environment are identified and explained: physical, physiological, biological, and psychological factors. Finally, future trends to reconnect public health with build environment design are then outlined.
Located in MPRC People / Jennifer D. Roberts, Dr.P.H., M.P.H. / Jennifer D. Roberts Publications
Corinne Low, University of Pennsylvania
Traditional Institutions in Modern Times: Dowries as Pensions When Sons Migrate
Located in Coming Up
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Correlates of Health Promotion in a Community Sample of African American Churches
Though many African American churches offer health promotion activities to their members, less is known about organizational factors that predict the availability of this programming. This study examines organizational capacity as a predictor of the amount and type of health programming offered by a convenience sample of 119 African American churches. Leaders completed a survey of health promotion activities provided in the previous 12 months and a measure of organizational capacity. Churches offered an average of 6.08 (SD = 2.15) different health programs targeting 4.66 (SD = 3.63) topics. Allocation of space and having a health ministry were positively associated with both the number of health programs and health topics addressed. When seeking to initiate health programming in an African American church setting, it is recommended that stakeholders partner with churches that have existing structures to support health promotion such as a health ministry, or help them build this capacity.  
Located in MPRC People / Craig Fryer, Dr.P.H. / Craig Fryer Publications
Courtney Thomas, Assistant Professor, Community Health Sciences, UCLA
The Racial Self-Awareness Framework of Race-Based Stress, Coping, and Health: Evaluating Biopsychosocial Pathways among African Americans
Located in Coming Up
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Creating Supportive Environments for LGBT Older Adults: An Efficacy Evaluation of Staff Training in a Senior Living Facility
Supportive housing later in life tends to be a key concern for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) elders. Most senior care providers are un(der)prepared to meet the needs of older LGBT adults. This study evaluated the efficacy of a 4 h, face-to-face, research-based, LGBT-diversity training designed to improve senior housing facility staff’s cultural competency regarding the needs of LGBT elders. Findings from this study found a significant increase in LGBT content knowledge between pre- and post-intervention assessments and a significant decrease in perceived preparedness when working with LGBT elders. These effects remained significant after controlling for staff designation, religion, educational attainment, and training session. Findings suggest that staff’s cultural competence affected their perceived readiness to address LGBT elders’ needs. Implications are related to the concept of cultural humility or the lifelong process of understanding others’ experiences based on the recognition of lack of un(der)preparedness to create a culturally supportive residential environment.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Cumulative Psychosocial Stress and Ideal Cardiovascular Health in Older Women: Data by Race/Ethnicity
  BACKGROUND: Research implicates acute and chronic stressors in racial/ethnic health disparities, but the joint impact of multiple stressors on racial/ethnic disparities in cardiovascular health is unknown. METHODS: In 25 062 women (24 053 white; 256 Hispanic; 440 black; 313 Asian) articipating in the Women's Health Study follow-up cohort, we examined the relationship between cumulative psychosocial stress (CPS) and ideal cardiovascular health (ICH), as defined by the American Heart Association's 2020 strategic Impact Goals. This health metric includes smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and glucose, with higher levels indicating more ICH and less cardiovascular risk (score range, 0-7). We created a CPS score that summarized acute stressors (eg, negative life events) and chronic stressors (eg, work, work-family spillover, financial, discrimination, relationship, and neighborhood) and traumatic life event stress reported on a stress questionnaire administered in 2012 to 2013 (score range, 16-385, with higher scores indicating higher levels of stress). RESULTS: White women had the lowest mean CPS scores (white: 161.7±50.4; Hispanic: 171.2±51.7; black: 172.5±54.9; Asian: 170.8±50.6; P overall <0.01). Mean CPS scores remained higher in Hispanic, black, and Asian women than in white women after adjustment for age, socioeconomic status (income and education), and psychological status (depression and anxiety) ( P<0.01 for each). Mean ICH scores varied by race/ethnicity ( P<0.01) and were significantly lower in black women and higher in Asian women compared with white women (β-coefficient [95% CI]: Hispanics, -0.02 [-0.13 to -0.09]; blacks, -0.34 [-0.43 to -0.25]; Asians, 0.34 [0.24 to 0.45]); control for socioeconomic status and CPS did not change these results. Interactions between CPS and race/ethnicity in ICH models were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Both CPS and ICH varied by race/ethnicity. ICH remained worse in blacks and better in Asians compared with whites, despite taking into account socioeconomic factors and CPS.
Located in Retired Persons / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Current tobacco use, nicotine dependence, and transitions across stages of alcohol involvement: A latent transition analysis approach
This study aims to examine the (a) probability of transition between stages of alcohol involvement and (b) influence of tobacco use and nicotine dependence on transitions. Data came from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Latent transition analysis estimated the probability of transitioning between stages of alcohol involvement across waves and the impact of tobacco use and nicotine dependence at Wave 1 on transitions. Males reporting current tobacco use but no dependence at Wave 1 were more likely to progress from No Problems to Moderate Problems (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.44, 2.22]) and from No Problems to Severe Problems (aOR = 2.44; 95% CI [1.25, 4.77]) than nontobacco users. Females reporting current tobacco use but no dependence were more likely to progress from No Problems to Moderate Problems (aOR = 2.00; 95% CI [1.37, 2.94]) and from No Problems to Severe Problems (aOR = 2.87; 95% CI [1.34, 6.13]). Females reporting current tobacco use and dependence were more likely than females not using tobacco to transition from Moderate to No Problems (aOR = 2.10; 95% CI [1.04, 4.22]). Results suggest that tobacco use is a preceding correlate of progression in alcohol involvement among males and females. Among females, tobacco use and nicotine dependence are also related to alcohol involvement recovery.
Located in MPRC People / Kerry Green, Ph.D. / Kerry Green Publications