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Jessica Fish and Bradley Boekeloo win Data Contract to Study LGBTQ Health Disparities
They are one of the four research groups chosen for the data contract
Located in News
Jogging While Black
Sociologist Rashawn Ray speaks out about the fears that keep many African Americans from exercising
Located in News
Article ReferenceLGBTQ Youth-Serving Community-Based Organizations: Who Participates and What Difference Does it Make?
LGBTQ youth are at greater risk for compromised health, yet large-scale health promotion programs for LGBTQ young people have been slow to develop. LGBTQ community-based organizations—which provide LGBTQ-focused support and services—have existed for decades, but have not been a focus of the LGBTQ youth health literature. The current study used a contemporary sample of LGBTQ youth (age 15–21;  M  = 18.81;  n  = 1045) to examine who participates in LGBTQ community-based organizations, and the association between participation and self-reported mental health and substance use. Youth who participated in LGBTQ community-based organizations were more likely to be assigned male at birth, transgender, youth of color, and accessing free-or-reduced lunch. Participation was associated with concurrent and longitudinal reports of mental health and substance use. LGBTQ community-based organizations may be an underutilized resource for promoting LGBTQ youth health.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Life and Death in the American City: Men’s Life Expectancy in 25 Major American Cities From 1990 to 2015
The past several decades have witnessed growing geographic disparities in life expectancy within the United States, yet the mortality experience of U.S. cities has received little attention. We examine changes in men’s life expectancy at birth for the 25 largest U.S. cities from 1990 to 2015, using mortality data with city of residence identifiers. We reveal remarkable increases in life expectancy for several U.S. cities. Men’s life expectancy increased by 13.7 years in San Francisco and Washington, DC, and by 11.8 years in New York between 1990 and 2015, during which overall U.S. life expectancy increased by just 4.8 years. A significant fraction of gains in the top-performing cities relative to the U.S. average is explained by reductions in HIV/AIDS and homicide during the 1990s and 2000s. Although black men tended to see larger life expectancy gains than white men in most cities, changes in socioeconomic and racial population composition also contributed to these trends.
Located in MPRC People / Michel Boudreaux, Ph.D. / Michel Boudreaux Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Long-term exposure to particulate air pollution and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in the Old Order Amish
Background Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has been associated with endothelial dysfunction, an early marker of cardiovascular risk. Our aim was to extend this research to a genetically homogenous, geographically stable rural population using location-specific moving-average air pollution exposure estimates indexed to the date of endothelial function measurement. Methods We measured endothelial function using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in 615 community-dwelling healthy Amish participants. Exposures to PM < 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) and PM < 10 μm (PM 10 ) were estimated at participants’ residential addresses using previously developed geographic information system-based spatio-temporal models and normalized. Associations between PM exposures and FMD were evaluated using linear mixed-effects regression models, and polynomial distributed lag (PDL) models followed by Bayesian model averaging (BMA) were used to assess response to delayed effects occurring across multiple months. Results Exposure to PM 10  was consistently inversely associated with FMD, with the strongest (most negative) association for a 12-month moving average (− 0.09; 95% CI: − 0.15, − 0.03). Associations with PM 2.5  were also strongest for a 12-month moving average but were weaker than for PM 10  (− 0.07; 95% CI: − 0.13, − 0.09). Associations of PM 2.5  and PM 10  with FMD were somewhat stronger in men than in women, particularly for PM 10 . Conclusions Using location-specific moving-average air pollution exposure estimates, we have shown that 12-month moving-average estimates of PM 2.5  and PM 10  exposure are associated with impaired endothelial function in a rural population.
Located in MPRC People / Robin Puett, Ph.D. / Robin Puett Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Maternal experiences of ethnic discrimination and child cardiometabolic outcomes in the Study of Latino (SOL) Youth
Purpose Limited research has examined maternal experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination in relation to child cardiometabolic health. In this study, we investigated whether maternal experiences of ethnic discrimination were associated with cardiometabolic risk in Hispanic/Latino youth several years later. Methods Our sample included 1146 youth (8–16 years) from the Study of Latino Youth (2012–2014), who were children of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos participants (2008–2011). We used regression models to examine the prospective associations between maternal report of ethnic discrimination in relation to her child's  body mass index  (BMI) z-score,  metabolic syndrome  score (MetS), and high sensitivity  C-reactive protein  (hsCRP) levels 2 years later. Results Maternal ethnic discrimination was associated with youth hsCRP, but not BMI or MetS (P -values >.05). Adjusting for age, nativity, and national background, maternal ethnic discrimination was associated with higher (log) hsCRP levels (β = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.04 to 0.32) in children. This association was robust to adjustment for maternal and household characteristics (β = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.04 to 0.31), as well as  maternal depression  and maternal BMI. Conclusions Maternal ethnic discrimination is associated with inflammation among Hispanic/Latino youth, and not BMI z-score or MetS. Studies are needed to address temporality and pathways.
Located in Retired Persons / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications
Article ReferenceMaternal postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing and internalizing behaviors
Maternal postpartum depression has been shown to be one of the main predictors of externalizing and internalizing behaviors in toddlers and adolescents. Research suggests that presence of such behaviors can be observed as early as infancy. The current study uses longitudinal data from 247 mothers to examine the relationship between postpartum depressive symptoms at 8 weeks and the infant's externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 12 months. In unadjusted linear regression models, there were associations between postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing behaviors (β=0.082, SE=0.032, p=0.012) and internalizing behaviors (β=0.111, SE=0.037, p=0.003). After controlling for potential confounding factors, including maternal age, race, education, home ownership, smoking status in the postpartum period, marital status, parenting stress, and happiness from becoming a parent, the associations between postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing (β=0.051, SE=0.034, p=0.138) and internalizing behaviors (β=0.077, SE=0.040, p=0.057) were reduced and became non-significant. Furthermore, in these models the total amount of variance explained was 17.2% (p<0.0001) for externalizing behaviors and 10.5% (p<0.01) for internalizing behaviors; the only significant predictor of externalizing behaviors was maternal age (β=-0.074, SE=0.030, p=0.014), and of internalizing behaviors was white non-Hispanic ethnicity (β=-1.33, SE=0.378, p=0.0005). A combined effect of the confounding factors seems to explain the finding of no significant independent association between postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing and internalizing behaviors.
Located in MPRC People / Edmond Shenassa, Ph.D. / Edmond Shenassa Publications
Michael White, Brown University
Migration, Urbanization, and Health: Insights from South Africa
Located in Coming Up
Michel Boudreaux's study on Men's Life Expectancy published in Demography
Men's life expectancy has seen "remarkable increase" for several U.S. cities
Located in News
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Navigating a fragmented health care landscape: DACA recipients' shifting access to health care
Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) recipients face an uncertain fate as their future in the United States is being debated. Yet even before the program was introduced in June 2012 and became endangered in September 2017, they encountered challenges in navigating a fragmented health care landscape throughout the United States. This paper focuses on  DACA  recipients' experiences in accessing health care throughout their lives, both before and after receiving DACA. We conducted semi-structured interviews and questionnaires with 30 DACA recipients living in Maryland between April–December 2016. Participants represented 13 countries of origin and ranged in age between 18 and 28. Results demonstrate that DACA recipients have had punctuated coverage throughout their lives and continue to face constrained access despite temporary gains in status. Health care access is further stratified within their mixed-status families. Participants have also experienced shifts in their health care coverage due to moving between jurisdictions with variable eligibility and changing life circumstances related to family, school, and employment. This article underscores the importance of examining young adult immigrants' access to care over time as they weather changes in the broader policy context and in highly variable contexts of reception nationwide, shaped by state, but also county and city policies and programs. The challenges and gaps in coverage DACA recipients face also underscore the need for both health care and immigration reform.
Located in MPRC People / Christina Marisa Getrich, Ph.D. / Christina Getrich Publications