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Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Are Children Barriers to the Gender Revolution? International Comparisons
Children seem to present a barrier to the gender revolution in that parents are more likely to divide paid and domestic work along traditional gender lines than childless couples are. However, the extent to which this is so varies between countries and over time. We used data on 35 countries from the 2012 International Social Survey Programme to identify the contexts in which parents and non-parents differ the most in their division of labour. In Central/South America, Eastern Europe, Southern Europe, Asia, and South Africa, labour sharing configurations did not vary as much with the presence of children as in Australia, Western Europe, North America, and Northern Europe. Our multilevel models helped explain this pattern by showing that children seem to present a greater barrier to the gender revolution in richer and, surprisingly, more gender equal countries. However, the relationship between children and couples’ division of labour can be thought of as curvilinear, first increasing as societies progress, but then weakening if societies respond with policies that promote men’s involvement at home. In particular, having a portion of parental leave reserved for fathers reduces the extent to which children are associated with traditional labour sharing in the domestic sphere.
Located in MPRC People / Frances Goldscheider, Ph.D. / Frances Goldscheider Publications
Sexual minority youth less likely to exit foster care
Jessica Fish and her colleagues published a study presenting sexual minority youth as an overrepresented population in foster care, child welfare and out-of-home placement
Located in Research / Selected Research
Cohen on Warren’s statements about child care
One survey is not enough to make a social truth
Located in News
Cohen on the decline of fertility rates
Notes weak work-family policies in WAMU interview
Located in News
Sangaramoorthy on HIV disparities
Qualitative research helps to document stories of "stigma and survival"
Located in News
Article ReferenceLatent Classes of Polysubstance Use Among Adolescents in the United States: Intersections of Sexual Identity with Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity
PURPOSE: We aimed to estimate latent classes of concurrent polysubstance use and test for sexual orientation differences in latent class memberships with representative data from adolescents living in 19 U.S. states. We also tested whether sex, race/ethnicity, and age moderated the sexual identity differences in polysubstance use class memberships. METHODS: We analyzed data from 119,437 adolescents from 19 states who participated in the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Latent class analysis characterized polysubstance use patterns based on self-reported frequency of lifetime and past-month use of alcohol (including heavy episodic drinking), tobacco (cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco), and marijuana. Multinomial logistic regression models tested differences in latent class memberships by sexual identity. Interaction terms tested whether sex, race/ethnicity, and age moderated the sexual identity differences in polysubstance use class memberships. RESULTS: A six-class model of polysubstance use fit the data best and included nonusers (61.5%), experimental users (12.2%), marijuana-alcohol users (14.8%), tobacco-alcohol users (3.8%), medium-frequency three-substance users (3.6%), and high-frequency three-substance users (4.1%). Gay/lesbian- and bisexual-identified adolescents had significantly higher odds than heterosexual-identified adolescents of being in all of the user classes compared with the nonuser class. These sexual identity differences in latent polysubstance use class memberships were generally larger for females than for males, varied occasionally by race/ethnicity, and were sometimes larger for younger ages. CONCLUSION: Compared with their heterosexual peers, gay/lesbian and bisexual adolescents-especially females-are at heightened risk of engaging in multiple types of polysubstance use. Designing, implementing, and evaluating interventions will likely reduce these sexual orientation disparities.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Sayer’s findings important element of new report
Moms with husbands, live-in male partners are sleeping less and doing more housework than single mothers.
Located in News
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Family Structure Change Among Latinos: Variation by Ecologic Risk
We examined differences in family structure change in an urban sample of mothers (N = 1,314) from their child’s birth to age 5 and whether ecological risk moderated this association. We found that compared with U.S.-born Latino mothers, foreign-born Latino mothers were 62% less likely to break up and 75% less likely to repartner than remain stably resident. Across nativity status, Latina mothers with fewer children, more economic stress, less income, and less frequently reported father involvement were more likely to break up and repartner than remain stably resident. We found no moderation effects of ecological risk.
Located in MPRC People / Natasha Cabrera, Ph.D. / Natasha Cabrera Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)The association between interpregnancy interval and severe maternal morbidities using revised national birth certificate data: A probabilistic bias analysis
Severe maternal morbidity continues to be on the rise in the US. Short birth spacing is a modifiable risk factor associated with maternal morbidity, yet few studies have examined this association, possibly due to few available data sources to examine these rare events. To examine the association between interpregnancy interval (IPI) and severe maternal morbidity using near‐national birth certificate data and account for known under‐reporting using probabilistic bias analysis. We used revised 2014‐2017 birth certificate data, restricting to resident women with a non–first‐born singleton birth. We examined the following: (a) maternal blood transfusion, (b) admission to intensive care unit (ICU), (c) uterine rupture (among women with a prior caesarean delivery) and (d) third‐ or fourth‐degree perineal laceration (among vaginal deliveries) by IPI categories (<6, 6‐11, 12‐17, 18‐23, 24‐59 and 60+ months). Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using log‐binomial regression, adjusting for select maternal characteristics. Probabilistic bias analyses were performed. Compared with IPI 18 to 23 months, adjusted models revealed that the risk of maternal transfusion followed a U‐shaped curve with IPI, while risk of ICU admission and perineal laceration increased with longer IPI. Risk of uterine rupture was highest among IPI <6 months. With the exception of maternal transfusion, these findings persisted regardless of the extent or type of misclassification examined in bias analyses. Associations between IPI and maternal morbidity varied by outcome, even after adjusting for misclassification of SMM. Differences across maternal health outcomes should be considered when counselling and making recommendations regarding optimal birth spacing.
Located in MPRC People / Marie Thoma, Ph.D. / Marie Thoma Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Health Care Experiences of Black Transgender Women and Men Who Have Sex With Men
Black sexual and gender minorities (SGM) are at greater risk for HIV compared to their White, cisgender, heterosexual counterparts. Linkage to culturally sensitive health care is, therefore, pivotal for HIV prevention and treatment of Black SGM. Unfortunately, social and structural challenges undermine Black SGM individuals' abilities to obtain adequate health care services, indicating a need to understand Black SGM perceptions of health care. To address this gap, we interviewed Black men who have sex with men and transwomen about their experiences with health care providers. Participants discussed needs and concerns, including provider SGM identity diversity and education; assumptions, judgment, stigma, and discrimination; and ability to establish a personal bond, trust, and familiarity. Black SGM indicated that providers often did not meet their needs in different ways regarding their SGM identities. Findings suggest a need for provider cultural sensitivity education programs that address the needs of Black SGM in health care.
Located in MPRC People / Bradley Boekeloo, Ph.D., Sc.M. / Bradley Boekeloo Publications