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Incollection Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)The Informative Role of Advertising and Experience in Dynamic Brand Choice: an Application to the Ready-to-Eat Cereal Market
We study how consumers make brand choices when they have limited information. In a market of experience goods with frequent product entry and exit, consumers face two types of information problems: first, they have limited information about a product’s existence; second, even if they know a product exists, they do not have full information about its quality until they purchase and consume it. In this chapter, we incorporate purchase experience and brand advertising as two sources of information and examine how consumers use them in a dynamic process. The model is estimated using the Nielsen Homescan data in Los Angeles, which consist of grocery shopping history for 1,402 households over 6 years. Taking ready-to-eat cereal as an example, we find that consumers learn about new products quickly and form strong habits. More specifically, advertising has a significant effect in informing consumers of a product’s existence and signaling product quality. However, advertising’s prestige effect is not significant. We also find that incorporating limited information about a product’s existence leads to larger estimates of the price elasticity. Based on the structural estimates, we simulate consumer choices under three counterfactual experiments to evaluate brand marketing strategies and a policy on banning children-oriented cereal advertising. Simulation suggests that the advertising ban encourages consumers to consume less sugar and more fiber, but their expenditures are also higher because they switch to family and adult brands, which are more expensive.
Located in MPRC People / Ginger Zhe Jin, Ph.D. / Ginger Zhe Jin Publications
MPRC Affiliate Judith Shinogle
Dr. Shinogle was killed in an automobile accident on 20 May
Located in News
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Exposure to Particulate Matter and Adverse Birth Outcomes: A Comprehensive Review and Meta Analysis.
Increasing number of studies have investigated the impact of maternal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes, particularly low birth weight (LBW, <2,500 g at birth) and preterm birth (PTB, <37 completed weeks of gestation). We performed a comprehensive review of the peer-reviewed literature and a meta-analysis to quantify the association between maternal exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 2.5 and 10 μm (PM 2.5  and PM 10 ) during pregnancy and the risk of LBW and PTB. We identified 20 peer-reviewed articles providing quantitative estimate of exposure and outcome that met our selection criteria. There was significant heterogeneity between studies, particularly for findings related to PM 10  exposure (LBW,  I -squared 54%,  p  = 0.01; PTB,  I -squared = 73%,  p  < 0.01). Results from random-effect meta-analysis suggested a 9% increase in risk of LBW associated with a 10-μg/m 3  increase in PM 2.5  (combined odds ratios (OR), 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.90–1.32), but our 95% CI included the null value. We estimated a 15% increase in risk of PTB for each 10-μg/m 3  increase in PM 2.5  (combined OR, 1.15; CI, 1.14–1.16). The magnitude of risk associated with PM 10  exposure was smaller (2% per 10-μg/m 3  increase) and similar in size for both LBW and PTB, neither reaching formal statistical significance. We observed no significant publication bias, with  p  > 0.05 based on both Begg's and Egger's bias tests. Our results suggest that maternal exposure to PM, particularly PM 2.5  may have adverse effect on birth outcomes. Additional mechanistic studies are needed to understand the underlying mechanisms for this association.
Located in MPRC People / Amir Sapkota, Ph.D. / Amir Sapkota Publications
File Troff document (with manpage macros)Measuring and Mitigating HIV Stigma: A Framed Field Experiment
Vivian Hoffman, University of Maryland; Kent D. Messer and Jacob Fooks, University of Delaware // Keywords: HIV/AIDS, field experiment, stigma; 2012-003
Located in Research / Working Papers / WP Documents
Dagher: Prevention of postpartum depression could yield health care cost savings
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health R18 study is first to examine the relation between postpartum depression and health services expenditures
Located in Research / Selected Research
Teens, Technology, and Dating Violence
Donna Howard and colleagues are studying the impact of electronic communication technologies on dating violence
Located in Research / Selected Research
Seminar Series: Life Course Effects of Risk Factors at Women's Birth on Reproductive Outcomes as Adults
Amy O. Tsui, Director, The Bill & Melinda Gates Institute of Population & Reproductive Health, Professor, Population, Family & Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins University
Located in Coming Up
Seminar Series: Family and Neighborhood Interventions to Reduce Heart Disease Risk in East Los Angeles
Alex Ortega, Principal Investigator, Center for Population Health and Health Disparities, Professor, Department of Health Services, University of California
Located in Coming Up
Seminar Series: Polygyny, Partnership Concurrency and HIV transmission in Sub Saharan Africa
Georges Reniers, Assistant Professor, Office of Population Research, Woodrow Wilson School of Public & International Affairs, Department of Sociology, Princeton University
Located in Coming Up
Seminar Series: Substance Use During Pregnancy and Maternal and Child Health: Findings from a Prospective, Population Based, Birth Cohort
Edmond D. Shenassa, Director, Maternal and Child Health Program, Associate Professor, Department of Family Science, University of Maryland
Located in Coming Up