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Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Substance Use, Academic Performance, and Academic Engagement Among High School Seniors
BACKGROUND: Substance use is prevalent and is associated with academic performance among adolescents. Few studies have examined the association between abstinence from all substances and academic achievement. METHODS: Data from a nationally representative sample of 9578 12th graders from the 2015 Monitoring the Future survey were analyzed to examine relationships between abstinence from substance use and 4 academic variables: skipping school, grades, academic self-efficacy, and emotional academic engagement. Participants were categorized as lifetime non-users, former users, and past-year users based on the use of 14 substances. RESULTS: Approximately one-fourth of participants had never used cigarettes, alcohol, or other drugs during their lifetime, and 8% wt  used at least one substance during their lifetime but not during the past year. Adjusting for demographic variables, past-year substance users had 2.71 greater odds of skipping school during the past month than lifetime non-users and 1.74 greater odds of having low grades. Lifetime non-users reported greater academic self-efficacy and emotional academic engagement than past-year users. CONCLUSIONS: Many 12th graders have abstained from all substance use during their lifetime, and these adolescents experience better academic outcomes than their substance-using peers. Substance use prevention programs should be evaluated as a way to promote academic achievement.
Located in MPRC People / Craig Fryer, Dr.P.H. / Craig Fryer Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Sexual Minority Health Disparities: An Examination of Age-Related Trends Across Adulthood In a National Cross-Sectional Sample
Purpose:  Sexual minorities experience signi fi cant health disparities across a variety of mental, behav ioral, and physical health indicators. Yet, an understanding of the etiology and progression of sexual minority health disparities across the lifespan is limited. Methods:  We used the U.S. National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions III to  evaluate the association between sexual minority status and seven past-year health outcomes (alcohol  use disorder, tobacco use disorder, drug use disorder, major depressive episode, generalized anxiety  disorder, sexually transmitted infection, and cardiovascular conditions). To do this, we used unadjusted  and adjusted logistic regression among our study sample (n ¼ 30,999; aged 18 e 65 years) and time- varying effect models to evaluate how sexual orientation differences in these outcomes vary across  adulthood. Results:  Relative to heterosexuals, sexual minorities had elevated odds of past-year alcohol use disorder  and drug use disorder across all ages (18 e 65 years) although the magnitude of the disparity varies by  age. Sexual minorities were also more likely to experience major depressive episode, generalized anxiety  disorder, tobacco use disorder, sexually transmitted infection, and cardiovascular disease, but only at  speci fi c ages. Conclusions:  Sexual minority health disparities vary appreciably across the adult lifespan, thus eluci dating critical periods for focused prevention efforts.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Case-crossover analysis of short-term particulate matter exposures and stroke in the health professionals follow-up study
  BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Associations between short-term exposures to particulate matter (PM) air pollution and stroke are inconsistent. Many prior studies have used administrative and hospitalization databases where misclassification of the type and timing of the stroke event may be problematic. METHODS: In this case-crossover study, we used a nationwide kriging model to examine short-term ambient exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 and risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke among men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Conditional logistic regression models were used to obtain estimates of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM2.5 or PM10. Lag periods up to 3 days prior to the stroke event were considered in addition to a 4-day average. Stratified models were used to examine effect modification by patient characteristics. RESULTS: Of the 727 strokes that occurred between 1999 and 2010, 539 were ischemic and 122 were hemorrhagic. We observed positive statistically significant associations between PM10 and ischemic stroke (ORlag0-3 = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.03-1.55 per IQR increase [14.46 μg/m3]), and associations were elevated for nonsmokers, aspirin nonusers, and those without a history of high cholesterol. However, we observed no evidence of a positive association between short-term exposure to PM and hemorrhagic stroke or between PM2.5 and ischemic stroke in this cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence that ambient PM10 may be associated with higher risk of ischemic stroke and highlights that ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes are heterogeneous outcomes that should be treated as such in analyses related to air pollution.
Located in MPRC People / Robin Puett, Ph.D. / Robin Puett Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Navigating a fragmented health care landscape: DACA recipients' shifting access to health care
Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) recipients face an uncertain fate as their future in the United States is being debated. Yet even before the program was introduced in June 2012 and became endangered in September 2017, they encountered challenges in navigating a fragmented health care landscape throughout the United States. This paper focuses on  DACA  recipients' experiences in accessing health care throughout their lives, both before and after receiving DACA. We conducted semi-structured interviews and questionnaires with 30 DACA recipients living in Maryland between April–December 2016. Participants represented 13 countries of origin and ranged in age between 18 and 28. Results demonstrate that DACA recipients have had punctuated coverage throughout their lives and continue to face constrained access despite temporary gains in status. Health care access is further stratified within their mixed-status families. Participants have also experienced shifts in their health care coverage due to moving between jurisdictions with variable eligibility and changing life circumstances related to family, school, and employment. This article underscores the importance of examining young adult immigrants' access to care over time as they weather changes in the broader policy context and in highly variable contexts of reception nationwide, shaped by state, but also county and city policies and programs. The challenges and gaps in coverage DACA recipients face also underscore the need for both health care and immigration reform.
Located in MPRC People / Christina Marisa Getrich, Ph.D. / Christina Getrich Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Are sexual minority youth overrepresented in foster care, child welfare, and out-of-home placement? Findings from nationally representative data
BACKGROUND: Preliminary evidence suggests that sexual minority (e.g. lesbian, gay, bisexual, and same-sex attracted) youth are overrepresented in child welfare services. Yet, no study to date has been able to test this hypothesis with national data. OBJECTIVE: Using a two-study design, we test whether sexual minority youth are overrepresented in child welfare, foster care, and out-of-home placement using nationally representative data from the United States. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Study 1 data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 14,154; Mean age = 15.4). Study 2 data are from wave three of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II (n = 1309; Mean age = 15.0). METHODS: For Study 1, we use adjusted logistic regression models to test differences in lifetime foster care involvement between sexual minority and heterosexual youth. In Study 2, we calculate a Disproportionality Representation Index (DRI) - a ratio of sample prevalence relative to the general population - to estimate whether sexual minority youth were overrepresented in child welfare and out-of-home care. RESULTS: Study 1 results indicate that sexual minority youth are nearly 2.5 times as likely as heterosexual youth to experience foster care placement (aOR = 2.43, 95% CI 1.40, 4.21, p = .002). Results from Study 2 show that sexual minority youth were largely overrepresented in child welfare services (DRI = 1.95-2.48) and out-of-home placement (DRI = 3.69-4.68). CONCLUSIONS: Findings are the first to demonstrate sexual minority youth's overrepresentation in child welfare, foster care, and out-of-home placement using nationally representative data and emphasizes the need for focused research on sexual minority youth involved in the child welfare system.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Cigarette Smoking Disparities Between Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Youth
BACKGROUND: Using a population-based sample of youth, we examined rates of cigarette use and trends in cigarette use disparities between heterosexual youth and 3 subgroups of sexual minority youth (SMY) (ie, lesbian or gay, bisexual, and unsure) from 2005 to 2015. METHODS: Data are from 6 cohorts of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national, biennial, school-based survey of ninth- to 12th-grade students in the United States (n = 404 583). Sex-stratified analyses conducted in 2017 examined trends in 2 cigarette-related behaviors: lifetime cigarette use and heavy cigarette use (20+ days in the past 30). RESULTS: Disparities in lifetime cigarette use between lesbian and heterosexual girls were statistically smaller in 2015 relative to 2005 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12–0.75; P = .011). Sexual orientation disparities in heavy use were narrower for bisexual boys in 2015 compared with 2005 (aOR 0.39; 95% CI 0.17–0.90; P = .028). Girls and boys unsure of their sexual identity had wider disparities in heavy use in 2015 (aOR 3.85; 95% CI 1.39–11.10; P = .009) relative to 2005 (aOR 2.44; 95% CI 1.22–5.00; P = .012). CONCLUSIONS: SMY remain at greater risk for cigarette-related behaviors despite greater acceptance of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people in the United States. Focused policies and programs aimed at reducing rates of SMY cigarette use are warranted, particularly for youth questioning their sexual identity.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Article ReferenceCensus Tract Food Tweets and Chronic Disease Outcomes in the U.S., 2015–2018
There is a growing recognition of social media data as being useful for understanding local area patterns. In this study, we sought to utilize geotagged tweets—specifically, the frequency and type of food mentions—to understand the neighborhood food environment and the social modeling of food behavior. Additionally, we examined associations between aggregated food-related tweet characteristics and prevalent chronic health outcomes at the census tract level. We used a Twitter streaming application programming interface (API) to continuously collect ~1% random sample of public tweets in the United States. A total of 4,785,104 geotagged food tweets from 71,844 census tracts were collected from April 2015 to May 2018. We obtained census tract chronic disease outcomes from the CDC 500 Cities Project. We investigated associations between Twitter-derived food variables and chronic outcomes (obesity, diabetes and high blood pressure) using the median regression. Census tracts with higher average calories per tweet, less frequent healthy food mentions, and a higher percentage of food tweets about fast food had higher obesity and hypertension prevalence. Twitter-derived food variables were not predictive of diabetes prevalence. Food-related tweets can be leveraged to help characterize the neighborhood social and food environment, which in turn are linked with community levels of obesity and hypertension.
Located in MPRC People / Quynh Nguyen, Ph.D., M.S.P.H. / Quynh Nguyen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Flies Without Borders - Lessons from Chennai on Improving India's Municipal Public Health Services
India’s cities face key challenges to improving public health outcomes. First, unequally distributed public resources create insanitary conditions, especially in slums – threatening everyone’s health, as suggested by poor child growth even amongst the wealthiest. Second, devolving services to elected bodies works poorly for highly technical services like public health. Third, services are highly fragmented. This paper examines the differences in the organisation and management of municipal services in Chennai and Delhi, two cities with sharply contrasting health indicators. Chennai mitigates these challenges by retaining professional management of service delivery and actively serving vulnerable populations − while services in Delhi are quite constrained. Management and institutional issues have received inadequate attention in the public health literature on developing countries, and the policy lessons from Chennai have wide relevance.
Located in MPRC People / Monica Das Gupta, Ph.D. / Monica Das Gupta Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Social Influences on Drinking Trajectories From Adolescence to Young Adulthood in an Urban Minority Sample
OBJECTIVE: Research on the heterogeneity in drinking patterns of urban minorities within a socioecological framework is rare. The purpose of this study was to explore multiple, distinct patterns of drinking from adolescence to young adulthood in a sample of urban minority youth and to examine the influence of neighborhood, family, and peers on these trajectories. METHOD: Data are from a longitudinal study of 584 (56% male) primarily Black (87%) youth who were first sampled in childhood based on their residence in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore City and followed up annually through age 26. Data were analyzed using group-based trajectory modeling and multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: Modeling revealed six trajectories from ages 14 to 26: abstainer, experimenter, adult increasing, young adult increasing, adolescent limited, and adolescent increasing. Neighborhood disadvantage was a risk factor for drinking regardless of the timing of onset. Perceptions of availability, peer drinking, and parental approval for drinking were risk factors for underage drinking trajectories, whereas parental supervision was a significant protective factor. Positive social activities in neighborhoods was protective against increased drinking, whereas a decline in perceptions of peer drinking was associated with adolescent-limited drinking. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings uniquely highlight the importance of developing interventions involving parents for urban minority youth for whom family is particularly relevant in deterring underage drinking. Perhaps most importantly, our data suggest that interventions that support positive social activities in disadvantaged neighborhoods are protective against adolescent drinking and altering perceptions of peer drinking may reduce adolescent drinking among low-income, urban minority youth.
Located in MPRC People / Kerry Green, Ph.D. / Kerry Green Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Local Health Department Activities to Reduce Emergency Department Visits for Substance Use Disorders
ABSTRACT: The Affordable Care Act (ACA) provides financial incentives to prevent substance use disorders (SUDs). Local health departments (LHDs) can receive funds to establish care teams that partner with primary care providers and health systems. This study estimates the potential effect of LHDs on emergency visits for SUDs, using linked data sets from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Emergency Department (ED) sample for the State of Maryland-2012, the National Association of County and City Health Officials Profiles Survey 2013, and Area Health Resource File 2013 to estimate potential effect of LHDs' provision of SUD preventive care and SUD-related policy implementation. Local health department involvement in SUD-related policy during the past 2 years and provision of preventive care for behavioral health in the past year significantly reduced the probability of having a SUD-related ED visit by 11% and 6%, respectively, after controlling for individual characteristics (odds ratio [OR] = 0.89, p < .001; OR = 0.93, p < .001). After adjusting for the individual and contextual factors, LHD involvement in policy was still associated with 14% reduction in SUD-related ED visits (OR = 0.86, p < .001). Results offer insights on the extent to which the LHD activities can possibly affect SUD-related ED visits and provide a foundation for future work to identify effective LHD interventions. 
Located in MPRC People / Kerry Green, Ph.D. / Kerry Green Publications