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Change in Elderly Living Arrangements in Rural South Africa, 2000-2010
Sangeetha Madhavan project, an R03 funded by NICHD, examines the impact of HIV on the probability that an elderly person will face a transition in living arrangements
Located in Research / Selected Research
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Changes in sleep duration associated with retirement transitions: The role of naps
This study examined the changes in sleep duration (total sleep time, night‐time sleep and daytime naps) after retirement transitions in China using a panel dataset of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2011, 2013 and 2015 with a total of 48,458 respondents. Linear regression analysis with generalized estimating equations was employed to examine the changes in sleep duration after transitions between different types of employment status. After controlling for the confounders, the results showed that the retired population and the population working in agricultural sectors slept 8.02 ( p  < .01) and 5.19 ( p  < .01) minutes longer than the population working in non‐agricultural sectors, respectively. Employment transition also had significant effects on sleep duration. Transition from non‐agricultural sectors to retirement increased total sleep time by 13.58 ( p  < .01) minutes and also raised the probability of daytime naps by 18% (OR = 1.18,  p  < .01). Transition from agricultural employment to retirement did not significantly affect the total sleep time, but significantly increased the probability of daytime naps (OR = 1.12,  p  = .02). Reentering the non‐agricultural sectors for the retirees did not significantly affect night‐time sleep, but decreased the probability of daytime naps (OR = 0.73,  p  < .01) and daytime nap duration (by 5.26 min,  p  = .01). In conclusion, people in China increased their sleep duration after transitions to retirement, but the magnitudes were much smaller than those in Western countries. Differences may be attributed to an abundant amount of Chinese people working in agricultural sectors, the high volume of retired people reentering the work force and the large proportion of people in China that had daytime naps at baseline.
Located in MPRC People / Jie Chen, Ph.D. / Jie Chen Publications
Chen research identifies benefits of local mental health services
American Journal of Preventive Medicine article reports racial and ethnic minorities experience a disproportionate burden of co-existing mental, physical conditions
Located in Research / Selected Research
Chen studying women's transition to later adulthood
Interdisciplinary project working with scholars from the University of North Carolina
Located in Research / Selected Research
Christine Mair, University of Maryland Baltimore County
Aging Alone?: Family Network Structures and Cross-National Friendship Patterns
Located in Coming Up
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Cigarette Smoking Among Youth at the Intersection of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity
Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth who are most vulnerable to tobacco use. Methods: We analyzed data from a national nonprobability sample of 11,192 SGM youth (ages 13–17). Age of cigarette initiation and current use were modeled using Cox proportional hazard and binomial regression. Sexual and gender identities were explanatory variables and the models were adjusted for ethnoracial identity and age. Results: Approximately 7\% of the sample reported current smoking. Cisgender and transgender boys had higher odds of current smoking compared with cisgender and transgender girls (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.86; 95\% confidence interval [CI]: 1.56–2.21). Pansexual-identified youth had higher odds of smoking (AOR = 1.33; 95\% CI: 1.05–1.70) compared with gay/lesbian youth independent of gender identity. Pansexual-identified cisgender boys had the highest smoking prevalence (21.6\%). Predicted probabilities were higher among transgender boys across all sexual identities, except asexual. The hazard of smoking at a younger age was greater for transgender boys compared with cisgender boys (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.67; 95\% CI: 1.43–1.94) as well as for bisexual (AHR = 1.12; 95\% CI: 1.01–1.24) and pansexual (AHR = 1.17; 95\% CI: 1.03–1.33) youth compared with those who identified as gay or lesbian. Conclusions: These findings suggest that transgender boys may be at higher risk for early and current cigarette use regardless of their sexual identity, whereas smoking varied more widely for youth across different sexual identities. The findings suggest that specific subgroups of SGM youth require focused attention in tobacco control research and practice.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Cigarette Smoking Disparities Between Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Youth
BACKGROUND: Using a population-based sample of youth, we examined rates of cigarette use and trends in cigarette use disparities between heterosexual youth and 3 subgroups of sexual minority youth (SMY) (ie, lesbian or gay, bisexual, and unsure) from 2005 to 2015. METHODS: Data are from 6 cohorts of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national, biennial, school-based survey of ninth- to 12th-grade students in the United States (n = 404 583). Sex-stratified analyses conducted in 2017 examined trends in 2 cigarette-related behaviors: lifetime cigarette use and heavy cigarette use (20+ days in the past 30). RESULTS: Disparities in lifetime cigarette use between lesbian and heterosexual girls were statistically smaller in 2015 relative to 2005 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12–0.75; P = .011). Sexual orientation disparities in heavy use were narrower for bisexual boys in 2015 compared with 2005 (aOR 0.39; 95% CI 0.17–0.90; P = .028). Girls and boys unsure of their sexual identity had wider disparities in heavy use in 2015 (aOR 3.85; 95% CI 1.39–11.10; P = .009) relative to 2005 (aOR 2.44; 95% CI 1.22–5.00; P = .012). CONCLUSIONS: SMY remain at greater risk for cigarette-related behaviors despite greater acceptance of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people in the United States. Focused policies and programs aimed at reducing rates of SMY cigarette use are warranted, particularly for youth questioning their sexual identity.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Clare Barrington, University of North Carolina
PrEP Up!: a mixed methods study of stigma and pre-exposure prophylaxis use in Guatemala
Located in Coming Up
Cohen comments on the steep decline in life expectancy in the United States
COVID-19 and unintentional injury deaths are cited as major contributors of this shift
Located in News
Cohen: young disproportionately harmed by COVID's economic impact
Bloomberg News article examines family and employment impacts
Located in News