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Public Health Researchers Win Data Contract to Study LGBTQ Health Disparities
Access to new dataset opens up research opportunities
Located in Research / Selected Research
Article ReferenceThe Rejection Sensitivity Model: Sexual Minority Adolescents in Context
Theoretical and empirical integration of the rejection sensitivity (RS) model to sexual minority people is one of the few attempts to extend existing theoretical frameworks that explain mental health disparities for this population, namely the minority stress framework (Meyer,  2003 ) and its extensions (Hatzenbuehler,  2009 ; Testa, Habarth, Peta, Balsam, & Bockting,  2015 ). Theoretical origins of RS are rooted in the desire to understand how rejection from significant others affects subsequent other close relationships (Downey & Feldman,  1996 ). This was later extended to conceptualize rejection based on membership of a stigmatized group and modified to understand sexual orientation-related RS among sexual minorities (Dyar, Feinstein, Eaton, & London,  2016 ; Pachankis, Goldfried, & Ramrattan,  2008 ). Feinstein ( 2019 ) brings new life to this adapted application by grounding and integrating the basic tenets of sexual orientation-related RS alongside a critical health compromising process of minority stress: vigilance. Meyer theorized vigilance as a core form of proximal minority stressors and explains that “LGB people learn to anticipate—indeed, expect—negative regard from members of the dominant culture. To ward off potential negative regard, discrimination, and violence, they must be vigilant” and this vigilance is “related to feared possible (even if imagined) negative events” (Meyer,  2003 , p. 680–681). Feinstein explains that existing theoretical frameworks (Hatzenbuehler,  2009 ; Meyer,  2003 ) mention vigilance and RS as important processes, but lack a comprehensive integration of these concepts. Given that schemas for RS are formed early in the life course, we focus on the applicability to sexual minority adolescents, and other marginalized groups.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Life and Death in the American City: Men’s Life Expectancy in 25 Major American Cities From 1990 to 2015
The past several decades have witnessed growing geographic disparities in life expectancy within the United States, yet the mortality experience of U.S. cities has received little attention. We examine changes in men’s life expectancy at birth for the 25 largest U.S. cities from 1990 to 2015, using mortality data with city of residence identifiers. We reveal remarkable increases in life expectancy for several U.S. cities. Men’s life expectancy increased by 13.7 years in San Francisco and Washington, DC, and by 11.8 years in New York between 1990 and 2015, during which overall U.S. life expectancy increased by just 4.8 years. A significant fraction of gains in the top-performing cities relative to the U.S. average is explained by reductions in HIV/AIDS and homicide during the 1990s and 2000s. Although black men tended to see larger life expectancy gains than white men in most cities, changes in socioeconomic and racial population composition also contributed to these trends.
Located in MPRC People / Michel Boudreaux, Ph.D. / Michel Boudreaux Publications
Michel Boudreaux's study on Men's Life Expectancy published in Demography
Men's life expectancy has seen "remarkable increase" for several U.S. cities
Located in News
Article ReferenceInsurance coverage and health care utilization among Asian youth before and after the Affordable Care Act
Objective: We examined changes in insurance coverage and health care utilization associated with the Affordable Care Act (ACA) among subgroups of Asian youth relative to non-Latino white youth. Methods: Data were from the 2010-2017 American Community Survey and National Health Interview Survey. Difference-in-difference models were used to examine changes in insurance coverage and health care utilization associated with the ACA among subgroups of Asian youth relative to white youth and subgroups of Asian youth in households below 200% of the federal poverty level (FPL) relative to comparable white youth. Results: Since the implementation of the ACA, insurance coverage increased among all Asian subgroups and white youth. The magnitude of the increase in insurance coverage was larger among Asian subgroups than white youth. More pronounced increases were found among almost all Asian subgroups in households below 200% FPL. Changes in health care utilization were limited and varied by subgroup. Increases in well-child visits were observed only among Chinese and “other” Asian youth. Conclusions: Insurance coverage increased among Asian youth after the implementation of the ACA. Improvements in health care utilization were limited and differed by subgroups. Programs to improve health care utilization should be tailored to Asian youth according to subgroup.
Located in MPRC People / Jie Chen, Ph.D. / Jie Chen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Intimate Partner Violence and Effectiveness Level of Contraceptive Selection Post-Abortion
Materials and Methods:  Using data on 245 women who were attending an urban hospital abortion clinic, we assessed whether women had ever experienced emotional, physical, or sexual IPV. Effectiveness of women's post-abortion contraceptive method selection was categorized into high (intrauterine device [IUD] and implant), moderate (pill, patch, ring, and shot), and low (condoms, emergency contraception, and none) effectiveness. Using multinomial logistic regression, we examined the relationship between number of types of IPV experienced and post-abortion contraceptive method effectiveness, adjusting for sociodemographics, prior abortion, having children, abortion trimester, importance of avoiding pregnancy in the next year, pre-abortion psychological distress, and effectiveness level of the contraceptive method women were planning to use before contraceptive counseling. Results:  Twenty-seven percent (27%) of women experienced two or three types of IPV, 35% experienced one IPV type, and 38% experienced no IPV. Compared to women with no histories of IPV, women who experienced two or more types of IPV during their lifetimes were more likely to choose contraceptive methods with moderate effectiveness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 5.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–24.23, p = 0.035) and high effectiveness (AOR = 5.01, 95% CI: 1.12–22.39, p = 0.035) than those with low effectiveness. Conclusion:  Women who experienced two or more types of lifetime IPV selected more effective contraceptive methods post-abortion. Access to contraceptives that are not partner dependent, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC), may be particularly important for women who have experienced multiple types of IPV.
Located in MPRC People / Mona Mittal, Ph.D. / Mona Mittal Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Intimate Partner Violence and Effectiveness Level of Contraceptive Selection Post-Abortion
Materials and Methods:  Using data on 245 women who were attending an urban hospital abortion clinic, we assessed whether women had ever experienced emotional, physical, or sexual IPV. Effectiveness of women's post-abortion contraceptive method selection was categorized into high (intrauterine device [IUD] and implant), moderate (pill, patch, ring, and shot), and low (condoms, emergency contraception, and none) effectiveness. Using multinomial logistic regression, we examined the relationship between number of types of IPV experienced and post-abortion contraceptive method effectiveness, adjusting for sociodemographics, prior abortion, having children, abortion trimester, importance of avoiding pregnancy in the next year, pre-abortion psychological distress, and effectiveness level of the contraceptive method women were planning to use before contraceptive counseling. Results:  Twenty-seven percent (27%) of women experienced two or three types of IPV, 35% experienced one IPV type, and 38% experienced no IPV. Compared to women with no histories of IPV, women who experienced two or more types of IPV during their lifetimes were more likely to choose contraceptive methods with moderate effectiveness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 5.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–24.23, p = 0.035) and high effectiveness (AOR = 5.01, 95% CI: 1.12–22.39, p = 0.035) than those with low effectiveness. Conclusion:  Women who experienced two or more types of lifetime IPV selected more effective contraceptive methods post-abortion. Access to contraceptives that are not partner dependent, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC), may be particularly important for women who have experienced multiple types of IPV.
Located in MPRC People / Julia Steinberg, Ph.D. / Julia Steinberg Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Intimate Partner Violence and Effectiveness Level of Contraceptive Selection Post-Abortion
Materials and Methods:  Using data on 245 women who were attending an urban hospital abortion clinic, we assessed whether women had ever experienced emotional, physical, or sexual IPV. Effectiveness of women's post-abortion contraceptive method selection was categorized into high (intrauterine device [IUD] and implant), moderate (pill, patch, ring, and shot), and low (condoms, emergency contraception, and none) effectiveness. Using multinomial logistic regression, we examined the relationship between number of types of IPV experienced and post-abortion contraceptive method effectiveness, adjusting for sociodemographics, prior abortion, having children, abortion trimester, importance of avoiding pregnancy in the next year, pre-abortion psychological distress, and effectiveness level of the contraceptive method women were planning to use before contraceptive counseling. Results:  Twenty-seven percent (27%) of women experienced two or three types of IPV, 35% experienced one IPV type, and 38% experienced no IPV. Compared to women with no histories of IPV, women who experienced two or more types of IPV during their lifetimes were more likely to choose contraceptive methods with moderate effectiveness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 5.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–24.23, p = 0.035) and high effectiveness (AOR = 5.01, 95% CI: 1.12–22.39, p = 0.035) than those with low effectiveness. Conclusion:  Women who experienced two or more types of lifetime IPV selected more effective contraceptive methods post-abortion. Access to contraceptives that are not partner dependent, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC), may be particularly important for women who have experienced multiple types of IPV.
Located in MPRC People / Marie Thoma, Ph.D. / Marie Thoma Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Evidence of the Linkage Between Hospital-based Care Coordination Strategies and Hospital Overall (Star) Ratings
BACKGROUND:In the new era of value-based payment models and pay for performance, hospitals are in search of the silver bullet strategy or bundle of strategies capable of improving their performance on quality measures. OBJECTIVES:To determine whether there is an association between adoption of hospital-based care coordination strategies and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services overall hospital quality (star) ratings and readmission rates. RESEARCH DESIGN:We used survey data from the American Hospital Association (AHA) and categorized respondents by the number of care coordination strategies that they reported having widely implemented. We used multiple logistic regression models to examine the association between the number of strategies and hospital overall rating performance and disease-specific 30-day excess readmission ratios, while controlling for hospital and county characteristics and state-fixed effects. SUBJECTS:A total of 710 general acute care noncritical access hospitals that received star ratings and responded to the 2015 AHA Care Systems and Payment Survey. MEASURES:Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services overall hospital ratings, 30-day excess readmission ratios. RESULTS:As compared with hospitals with 0-2 strategies, hospitals with 3 to 4 strategies (P=0.007), 5-7 strategies (P=0.002), or 8-12 strategies (P=0.002) had approximately 2.5× the odds of receiving a top rating (4 or 5 stars). Care coordination strategies were positively associated with lower 30-day readmission ratios for patients with chronic medical conditions, but not for surgical patients. Medication reconciliation, visit summaries, outreach after discharge, discharge care plans, and disease management programs were each individually associated with top ratings. CONCLUSIONS:Care coordination strategies are associated with high overall hospital ratings.
Located in MPRC People / Jie Chen, Ph.D. / Jie Chen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)How Early Is Too Early? Identification of Elevated, Persistent Problem Behavior in Childhood
We inquire how early in childhood children most at risk for problematic patterns of internalizing and externalizing behaviors can be accurately classified. Yearly measures of anxiety/depressive symptoms and aggressive behaviors (ages 6–13;  n  = 334), respectively, are used to identify behavioral trajectories. We then assess the degree to which limited spans of yearly information allow for the correct classification into the elevated, persistent pattern of the problem behavior, identified theoretically and empirically as high-risk and most in need of intervention. The true positive rate (sensitivity) is below 70% for anxiety/depressive symptoms and aggressive behaviors using behavioral information through ages 6 and 7. Conversely, by age 9, over 90% of the high-risk individuals are correctly classified (i.e., sensitivity) for anxiety/depressive symptoms, but this threshold is not met until age 12 for aggressive behaviors. Notably, the false positive rate of classification for both high-risk problem behaviors is consistently low using each limited age span of data (< 5%). These results suggest that correct classification into highest risk groups of childhood problem behavior is limited using behavioral information observed at early ages. Prevention programming targeting those who will display persistent, elevated levels of problem behavior should be cognizant of the degree of misclassification and how this varies with the accumulation of behavioral information. Continuous assessment of problem behaviors is needed throughout childhood in order to continually identify high-risk individuals most in need of intervention as behavior patterns are sufficiently realized.
Located in MPRC People / Terence Thornberry, Ph.D. / Terence Thornberry Publications