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Article ReferencePsychosocial Stress and Overweight and Obesity: Findings From the Chicago Community Adult Health Study
  Background Psychosocial stress has been implicated as a risk factor for overweight and obesity. However, research on psychosocial stressors and overweight and obesity has typically focused on single stressors in isolation, which may overestimate the impact of a specific stressor and fail to describe the role of cumulative stress on overweight and obesity risk. Purpose This study explores the association between overweight/obesity and cumulative exposure to a wide range of psychosocial stressors, among a multiracial/ethnic sample of adults. Methods Using secondary data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (n = 2,983), we conducted multinomial logistic regression analyses to quantify associations between eight psychosocial stressors, individually and in combination, and measured overweight and obesity, adjusted for sociodemographic factors, alcohol use and smoking. Results In separated covariate-adjusted models, childhood adversities (odds ratio [OR] = 1.16; confidence interval [CI] = [1.03, 1.30]), acute life events (OR = 1.18; CI = [1.04, 1.34]), financial strain (OR = 1.30; CI = [1.15, 1.47]), and relationship stressors (OR = 1.18; CI = [1.04, 1.35]) were associated with increased odds of obesity. In a model adjusted for all stressors simultaneously, financial strain was the only stressor independently associated with overweight (OR = 1.17; CI = [1.00, 1.36]) and obesity (OR = 1.21; CI = [1.05, 1.39]). Participants with stress exposure in the highest quintile across 2, 3, or ≥4 (compared to no) types of stressors had significantly higher odds of obesity. Conclusions Multiple types of stressors may be risk factors for obesity, and cumulative exposure to these stressors may increase the odds of obesity. Reducing exposure to stressors at the population level may have the potential to contribute to reducing the burden of obesity.  
Located in Retired Persons / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications
Public Health Researchers Win Data Contract to Study LGBTQ Health Disparities
Access to new dataset opens up research opportunities
Located in Research / Selected Research
Race / Ethnic Differentials in the Health Implications of Grandparents Caring for Grandchildren,
Faculty Associate Feinian Chen studies health implications for grandparents caring for grandchildren
Located in Research / Selected Research
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Race and income moderate the association between depressive symptoms and obesity
Complex interrelationships between race, sex, obesity and depression have been well-documented. Because of differences in associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and health by race, determining the role of SES may help to further explicate these relationships. The aim of this study was to determine how race and income interact with obesity on depression. Combining data from the 2007-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, depressive symptoms was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and obesity was assessed as body mass index ≥30 kg/m 2 . Three-way interactions between race, income and obesity on depressive symptoms were determined using ordered regression models. Significant interactions between race, middle income and obesity (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.22-1.96) suggested that, among white women, obesity is positively associated with depressive symptoms across income levels, while obesity was not associated with depression for African American women at any income level. Obesity was only associated with depressive symptoms among middle-income white men (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.02-2.03) and among high-income African American men (OR = 4.65, 95% CI = 1.48-14.59). The associations between obesity and depressive symptoms vary greatly by race and income. Findings from this study underscore the importance of addressing obesity and depression among higher income African American men.
Located in Retired Persons / Caryn Bell, Ph.D. / Caryn Bell Publications
Race, Gender, and Obesity: How the Social Environment Constrains or Enables Physical Activity
Faculty associate Rashawn Ray investigates the social and environmental changes needed in order to remove neighborhood barriers to regular physical exercise
Located in Research / Selected Research
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Racial discrimination and telomere shortening among African Americans: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study
OBJECTIVE: Telomeres are protective sequences of DNA capping the ends of chromosomes that shorten over time. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is posited to reflect the replicative history of cells and general systemic aging of the organism. Chronic stress exposure leads to accelerated LTL shortening, which has been linked to increased susceptibility to and faster progression of aging-related diseases. This study examined longitudinal associations between LTL and experiences of racial discrimination, a qualitatively unique source of minority psychosocial stress, among African Americans. METHOD: Data are from 391 African Americans in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Telomere Ancillary Study. We examined the number of domains in which racial discrimination was experienced in relation to LTL collected in Years 15 and 25 (Y15: 2000/2001; Y25: 2010/2011). Multivariable linear regression examined if racial discrimination was associated with LTL. Latent change score analysis (LCS) examined changes in racial discrimination and LTL in relation to one another. RESULTS: Controlling for racial discrimination at Y15, multivariable linear regression analyses indicated that racial discrimination at Y25 was significantly associated with LTL at Y25. This relationship remained robust after adjusting for LTL at Y15 (b = -.019, p = .015). Consistent with this finding, LCS revealed that increases in experiences of racial discrimination were associated with faster 10-year LTL shortening (b = -.019, p = .015). CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to evidence that racial discrimination contributes to accelerated physiologic weathering and health declines among African Americans through its impact on biological systems, including via its effects on telomere attrition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
Located in Retired Persons / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications
File Troff document (with manpage macros)Racial Non-equivalence of Socioeconomic Status and Health among African American and White College Graduates
Caryn N. Bell, University of Maryland; Tina K. Sacks, University of California Berkeley; Courtney S. Thomas Tobin, University of California Los Angeles; Roland J. Thorpe, Jr. Johns Hopkins University; 2019-004
Located in Research / Working Papers / WP Documents
Article ReferenceRacial non-equivalence of Socioeconomic Status and Health among African Americans and Whites
Racial health inequities are not fully explained by socioeconomic status (SES) measures like education, income and wealth. The largest inequities are observed among African American and white college graduates suggesting that African Americans do not receive the same health benefits of education. African Americans do not receive the same income and wealth returns of college education as their white counterparts indicating a racial non-equivalence of SES that may affect health inequities. The aim of this study is to determine whether racial non-equivalence of SES mediates race inequities in self-rated health by education and sex. Using data from the 2007–2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the United States, the mediation of the associations between race and self-rated health through household income ≥400% federal poverty line, homeownership, and investment income were assessed among college graduates and non-college graduates by sex. Indirect associations were observed among college graduate women (odds = 0.08, standard error (s.e.) = 0.03), and non-college graduate men (odds = 0.14, s.e. = 0.02) and women (odds = 0.06, s.e. = 0.02). Direct associations between race and self-rated health remained after accounting for household income and wealth indicators suggesting that race differences in income and wealth partially mediate racial inequities in self-rated health. This study demonstrates that the racial non-equivalence of SES has implications for health inequities, but the magnitude of indirect associations varied by sex. Other factors like discrimination, health pessimism and segregation should be considered in light of the racial non-equivalence of SES and racial inequities in self-rated health.
Located in Retired Persons / Caryn Bell, Ph.D. / Caryn Bell Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Racial Non-equivalence of Socioeconomic Status and Self-rated Health among African Americans and Whites
Racial health inequities are not fully explained by socioeconomic status (SES) measures like education, income and wealth. The largest inequities are observed among African American and white college graduates suggesting that African Americans do not receive the same health benefits of education. African Americans do not receive the same income and wealth returns of college education as their white counterparts indicating a racial non-equivalence of SES that may affect health inequities. The aim of this study is to determine whether racial non-equivalence of SES mediates race inequities in self-rated health by education and sex. Using data from the 2007–2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the United States, the mediation of the associations between race and self-rated health through household income ≥400% federal poverty line, homeownership, and investment income were assessed among college graduates and non-college graduates by sex. Indirect associations were observed among college graduate women (odds = 0.08, standard error (s.e.) = 0.03), and non-college graduate men (odds = 0.14, s.e. = 0.02) and women (odds = 0.06, s.e. = 0.02). Direct associations between race and self-rated health remained after accounting for household income and wealth indicators suggesting that race differences in income and wealth partially mediate racial inequities in self-rated health. This study demonstrates that the racial non-equivalence of SES has implications for health inequities, but the magnitude of indirect associations varied by sex. Other factors like discrimination, health pessimism and segregation should be considered in light of the racial non-equivalence of SES and racial inequities in self-rated health.
Located in Retired Persons / Caryn Bell, Ph.D. / Caryn Bell Publications
Rada Dagher Corrects Misinformation About Postpartum Depression and Postpartum Psychosis
Better diagnosis and care is needed for new moms
Located in News