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Elementary School Desegregation and Mid-Life Cognitive Function
Walsemann research identifies integrated early childhood education as factor for improved cognitive function for Black individuals
Located in Research / Selected Research
Elizabeth Frankenberg, University of North Carolina
Long-term Dynamics of Health, Well-Being, and Population Change after a Disaster
Located in Coming Up
Elizabeth Wrigley-Field, University of Minnesota
Racial Disparities in the 1918 Flu Pandemic in US Cities: What We Know and Why it Matters Today
Located in Coming Up
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Environmental Justice and the Food Environment in Prince George’s County, Maryland: Assessment of Three Communities
Lack of access to a health-promoting food environment can lead to poor health outcomes including obesity which is a problem for African-Americans in Prince George’s County, Maryland. Previous research examined the quality of the food environment at the regional level but did not consider local level indicators. In this study, we utilized an environmental justice framework to examine the local food environment in the County. We collected data from 127 food outlets, (convenience stores, grocery stores, and supermarkets), in three racially and socioeconomically diverse communities – Bladensburg (predominantly African American/ Black, with the lowest median household income); Greenbelt (similar percentage of non-white persons as Hyattsville, with the highest median household income); and Hyattsville (dominated by a Hispanic population). We examined the availability, quality, and accessibility of food within each community, using a modified version of the Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future (CLF) healthy food availability index (HFAI).We also used ArcMap 10.6 to examine the spatial distribution of stores in relation to sociodemographic factors and generate descriptive statistics to examine HFAI score differences across the communities, sociodemographic composition, and store types at the block group level. Mean HFAI scores were 7.76, 10.75, and 9.60 for Bladensburg, Greenbelt, and Hyattsville, respectively suggesting a relative disparity in access to diverse healthy and good quality food sources for these communities although these differences were not statistically significant (p=0.79). Statistically significant differences between the communities were found with respect to ethnic stores, stores that sold fresh vegetables (p=0.047), and stores that sold fresh fruits (p=0.012). Getis-Ord Gi Hot Spot Analysis revealed one statistically significant cold spot at 95% confidence, and two others at 90% confidence in Hyattsville, indicating a cluster of low-scoring stores. The results indicate a potential need for expanded food infrastructure in these communities to improve public health. We also identified the need for culturally appropriate foods and proposed ethnic stores as potential salutogens to improve the food environment in culturally diverse neighborhoods.
Located in MPRC People / Sacoby Wilson, Ph.D., M.S. / Sacoby Wilson Publications
Environmental Systems and Occupational Health Policy Analyses to Interrupt the Impact of Structural Racism
Payne-Sturges leads multi-disciplinary research team
Located in Research / Selected Research
File Troff document (with manpage macros)Epidemiological Paradox or Immigrant Vulnerability? Obesity Among Young Children of Immigrants
Michael S. Rendall, University of Maryland; Elizabeth Baker, University of Alabama; Margaret M. Weden, RAND Corporation; 2013-023
Located in Research / Working Papers / WP Documents
FileEpidemiological Paradox or Immigrant Vulnerability ? Obesity Among Young Children of Immigrants
Michael S. Rendall, University of Maryland; Elizabeth H. Baker and Margaret M. Weden, RAND Corporation; 2012-010
Located in Research / Working Papers / WP Documents
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Everyday and major experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and sleep health in a multiethnic population of U.S. women: Findings from the Sister Study
Background Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and poor sleep occur across all races/ethnicities in the U.S., though both are most common among racial/ethnic minorities. Few studies have investigated associations between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and various sleep dimensions in a multiethnic population. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional associations among 40,038 eligible Sister Study participants (enrollment: 2003-2009) who reported ever/never experiencing specific types of everyday (e.g., treated unfairly at a store or restaurant) or major (e.g., unfairly stopped, threatened, or searched by police) discrimination attributed to their race/ethnicity during a follow-up survey in 2008-2012. Participants also reported short sleep duration (<7 hours), sleep debt (≥2-hour difference between longest and shortest sleep duration), frequent napping (≥3 times/week), and insomnia. Poisson regression with robust variance estimation, adjusted for sociodemographic and health characteristics, estimated prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between each type of racial/ethnic discrimination and each sleep dimension, overall and by race/ethnicity. Results Mean age was 55 ± 8.9 years, 89% were NH-white, 8% NH-black, and 3% Hispanic/Latina. NH-black participants were the most likely to report everyday (76% vs. 4% [NH-whites] and 36% [Hispanics/Latinas]) and major racial/ethnic discrimination (52% vs. 2% [NH-whites] and 18% [Hispanics/Latinas]). Participants who experienced both types versus neither were more likely to report short sleep duration (PR=1.17 [95% CI: 1.09-1.25]) and insomnia symptoms (PR=1.10 [1.01-1.20]) but not other poor sleep dimensions. Conclusions Racial/ethnic minority women were most likely to experience racial/ethnic discrimination, which was associated with certain poor sleep dimensions among women of all races/ethnicities.
Located in Retired Persons / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Evidence of the Linkage Between Hospital-based Care Coordination Strategies and Hospital Overall (Star) Ratings
BACKGROUND:In the new era of value-based payment models and pay for performance, hospitals are in search of the silver bullet strategy or bundle of strategies capable of improving their performance on quality measures. OBJECTIVES:To determine whether there is an association between adoption of hospital-based care coordination strategies and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services overall hospital quality (star) ratings and readmission rates. RESEARCH DESIGN:We used survey data from the American Hospital Association (AHA) and categorized respondents by the number of care coordination strategies that they reported having widely implemented. We used multiple logistic regression models to examine the association between the number of strategies and hospital overall rating performance and disease-specific 30-day excess readmission ratios, while controlling for hospital and county characteristics and state-fixed effects. SUBJECTS:A total of 710 general acute care noncritical access hospitals that received star ratings and responded to the 2015 AHA Care Systems and Payment Survey. MEASURES:Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services overall hospital ratings, 30-day excess readmission ratios. RESULTS:As compared with hospitals with 0-2 strategies, hospitals with 3 to 4 strategies (P=0.007), 5-7 strategies (P=0.002), or 8-12 strategies (P=0.002) had approximately 2.5× the odds of receiving a top rating (4 or 5 stars). Care coordination strategies were positively associated with lower 30-day readmission ratios for patients with chronic medical conditions, but not for surgical patients. Medication reconciliation, visit summaries, outreach after discharge, discharge care plans, and disease management programs were each individually associated with top ratings. CONCLUSIONS:Care coordination strategies are associated with high overall hospital ratings.
Located in MPRC People / Jie Chen, Ph.D. / Jie Chen Publications
Examining and Addressing COVID-19 Racial Disparities in Detroit
Governance Studies at Brookings paper
Located in Research / Selected Research