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Structural Racism and Population Health: The Role of Race, Socioeconomic Status and Context
Caryn Bell, African American Studies, examines the effects of macro-level structural racism on population health
Located in Resources / / Seed Grant Program / Seed Grants Awarded
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Substance Use Among a National Sample of Sexual and Gender Minority Adolescents: Intersections of Sex Assigned at Birth and Gender Identity
Purpose:  We examined how substance use differed as a function of sex assigned at birth and gender identity (cisgender, transgender, or nonbinary/genderqueer) by type of substance. We sought to test whether current gender identity and sex assigned at birth were key factors in substance use among a large contemporary sample that included transgender and nonbinary/genderqueer adolescents. Methods:  We analyzed data from a large national U.S. sample of sexual and gender minority (SGM) adolescents (n = 11,129) collected between April and December 2017. Chi-square tests of independence were used to test whether substance use behaviors varied by sex assigned at birth and gender identity. A series of multivariate logistic regression models tested the odds of substance use by sex assigned at birth and gender identity, as well as the interaction between sex assigned at birth and gender identity. Results:  More than half of our sample reported lifetime alcohol use, and one-fourth of the sample reported lifetime marijuana use. Adolescents assigned male at birth had higher prevalence of substance use compared with adolescents assigned female at birth (AFAB). Multivariate models elucidated greater risk for most substance use outcomes for transgender adolescents compared with cisgender adolescents. We found significant interaction effects between gender identity and sex assigned at birth for recent alcohol use and lifetime and recent cigarette use among adolescents AFAB. Conclusions:  These findings have implications for stakeholders who develop nationally representative surveys, researchers who examine substance use disparities among SGM adolescents, and mental health professionals who treat underage substance use among vulnerable populations.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Substance Use, Academic Performance, and Academic Engagement Among High School Seniors
BACKGROUND: Substance use is prevalent and is associated with academic performance among adolescents. Few studies have examined the association between abstinence from all substances and academic achievement. METHODS: Data from a nationally representative sample of 9578 12th graders from the 2015 Monitoring the Future survey were analyzed to examine relationships between abstinence from substance use and 4 academic variables: skipping school, grades, academic self-efficacy, and emotional academic engagement. Participants were categorized as lifetime non-users, former users, and past-year users based on the use of 14 substances. RESULTS: Approximately one-fourth of participants had never used cigarettes, alcohol, or other drugs during their lifetime, and 8% wt  used at least one substance during their lifetime but not during the past year. Adjusting for demographic variables, past-year substance users had 2.71 greater odds of skipping school during the past month than lifetime non-users and 1.74 greater odds of having low grades. Lifetime non-users reported greater academic self-efficacy and emotional academic engagement than past-year users. CONCLUSIONS: Many 12th graders have abstained from all substance use during their lifetime, and these adolescents experience better academic outcomes than their substance-using peers. Substance use prevention programs should be evaluated as a way to promote academic achievement.
Located in MPRC People / Craig Fryer, Dr.P.H. / Craig Fryer Publications
FileSupplementary Materials: Disgust, Shame and Soapy Water: Tests of Novel Interventions to Promote Safe Water and Hygiene
Guiteras, et al.
Located in Research / Working Papers / WP Documents
Susan Parker, School of Public Policy
Are Enrollment Gains From Conditional Cash Transfers Sustained After Program Rollback? Evidence From Mexico
Located in Coming Up
Article ReferenceTeen Mothers’ Family Support and Adult Identity in the Emerging Adulthood: Implications for Socioeconomic Attainment Later in Life
We examined the prospective role of parental support and adult identity profiles in the transition to adulthood on teen mothers’ socioeconomic outcomes in adulthood. Analyses were based on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a nationally representative sample of youth followed over a decade. We used data from Waves 1, 3, and 4 (mean age = 28.6, Wave 4). Analytical sample consisted of 981 females who gave birth before age 20. Analysis included design-based regression models. Findings from adjusted regression models showed no statistically significant associations between teen mothers’ parental support and socioeconomic outcomes. While teen mothers have already achieved an important marker of adulthood, variability in adult identity profiles was observed. Teen mothers with older subjective age, regardless of their levels of psychosocial maturation, had higher socioeconomic attainment on some indicators. Findings suggest that teen mothers’ adult identity profiles differentiate their socioeconomic trajectories later in life.
Located in MPRC People / Kerry Green, Ph.D. / Kerry Green Publications
Teens, Technology, and Dating Violence
Donna Howard and colleagues are studying the impact of electronic communication technologies on dating violence
Located in Research / Selected Research
Temporal trends in mental health disparities among sexual minorities
Research shows persistent mental health disparities among sexual minority populations
Located in Research / Selected Research
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Testing a Syndemic Index of Psychosocial and Structural Factors associated with HIV Testing among Black Men
Black populations in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV. This disparity may be affected by social and structural barriers to HIV testing, leading to undiagnosed infection and prolonged HIV transmissibility. Using data from a nationally representative sample of 1,727 Black men in the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System we tested for differences in poverty, depression, and health care barriers between Black men who had been HIV tested in the past year and those who had not. We also tested a syndemic index of these factors. Number of syndemic factors was linearly associated with less HIV testing (aPR=0.79, 95% CI 0.66-0.95). Assumptions of unidimensionality were met. The use of a syndemic index was a superior approach to analyzing these factors individually, both in terms of model fit and associations detected. The accumulation of poverty, depression, and health care barriers has an adverse impact on HIV testing among Black men.
Located in MPRC People / Bradley Boekeloo, Ph.D., Sc.M. / Bradley Boekeloo Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Testing a Syndemic Index of Psychosocial and Structural Factors associated with HIV Testing among Black Men
Black populations in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV. This disparity may be affected by social and structural barriers to HIV testing, leading to undiagnosed infection and prolonged HIV transmissibility. Using data from a nationally representative sample of 1,727 Black men in the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System we tested for differences in poverty, depression, and health care barriers between Black men who had been HIV tested in the past year and those who had not. We also tested a syndemic index of these factors. Number of syndemic factors was linearly associated with less HIV testing (aPR=0.79, 95% CI 0.66-0.95). Assumptions of unidimensionality were met. The use of a syndemic index was a superior approach to analyzing these factors individually, both in terms of model fit and associations detected. The accumulation of poverty, depression, and health care barriers has an adverse impact on HIV testing among Black men.
Located in Retired Persons / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications