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Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Case-crossover analysis of short-term particulate matter exposures and stroke in the health professionals follow-up study
  BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Associations between short-term exposures to particulate matter (PM) air pollution and stroke are inconsistent. Many prior studies have used administrative and hospitalization databases where misclassification of the type and timing of the stroke event may be problematic. METHODS: In this case-crossover study, we used a nationwide kriging model to examine short-term ambient exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 and risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke among men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Conditional logistic regression models were used to obtain estimates of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM2.5 or PM10. Lag periods up to 3 days prior to the stroke event were considered in addition to a 4-day average. Stratified models were used to examine effect modification by patient characteristics. RESULTS: Of the 727 strokes that occurred between 1999 and 2010, 539 were ischemic and 122 were hemorrhagic. We observed positive statistically significant associations between PM10 and ischemic stroke (ORlag0-3 = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.03-1.55 per IQR increase [14.46 μg/m3]), and associations were elevated for nonsmokers, aspirin nonusers, and those without a history of high cholesterol. However, we observed no evidence of a positive association between short-term exposure to PM and hemorrhagic stroke or between PM2.5 and ischemic stroke in this cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence that ambient PM10 may be associated with higher risk of ischemic stroke and highlights that ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes are heterogeneous outcomes that should be treated as such in analyses related to air pollution.
Located in MPRC People / Olivia Denise Carter-Pokras, Ph.D. / Olivia Denise Carter-Pokras Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Challenging Stereotypes: A Counter-Narrative of the Contraceptive Experiences of Low-Income Latinas
Purpose: Reproductive autonomy is associated with educational attainment, advanced employment, and wellbeing. While U.S. Latinas use contraception to control their own childbearing and have reported a desire to do so, they often use it inconsistently and have the lowest rates of contraceptive use of any group. Reasons previously cited for why Latinas do not use contraception compared with non-Latino white women include lack of access, lack of knowledge, language barriers, emphasis on large families, machismo, and religiosity. These reasons are often overly simplistic and can lead to widespread generalizations about Latinas. Methods: Using focus groups and semistructured interviews from November 2014 through June 2015, this study describes the family planning perspectives and experiences of 16 Latinas living in Baltimore and recruited from two federally qualified health centers. A social determinant of health framework was used to guide identification of important concepts and explain findings. Results: Results demonstrated that respondents reported contraceptive agency and claimed autonomy over their bodies; described a sense of responsibility and often expressed caution about having families too large to care for; expressed educational and career aspirations; and perceived contraception as critical for the postponement of childbearing to achieve their goals. Conclusion: The patient/provider encounter should include communication that recognizes all patient preferences and lived experiences to support vulnerable and/or marginalized Latinas in their desires to control their own childbearing and life choices.
Located in Retired Persons / Ruth Zambrana, Ph.D. / Ruth Zambrana Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Cigarette Smoking Disparities Between Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Youth
BACKGROUND: Using a population-based sample of youth, we examined rates of cigarette use and trends in cigarette use disparities between heterosexual youth and 3 subgroups of sexual minority youth (SMY) (ie, lesbian or gay, bisexual, and unsure) from 2005 to 2015. METHODS: Data are from 6 cohorts of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national, biennial, school-based survey of ninth- to 12th-grade students in the United States (n = 404 583). Sex-stratified analyses conducted in 2017 examined trends in 2 cigarette-related behaviors: lifetime cigarette use and heavy cigarette use (20+ days in the past 30). RESULTS: Disparities in lifetime cigarette use between lesbian and heterosexual girls were statistically smaller in 2015 relative to 2005 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12–0.75; P = .011). Sexual orientation disparities in heavy use were narrower for bisexual boys in 2015 compared with 2005 (aOR 0.39; 95% CI 0.17–0.90; P = .028). Girls and boys unsure of their sexual identity had wider disparities in heavy use in 2015 (aOR 3.85; 95% CI 1.39–11.10; P = .009) relative to 2005 (aOR 2.44; 95% CI 1.22–5.00; P = .012). CONCLUSIONS: SMY remain at greater risk for cigarette-related behaviors despite greater acceptance of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people in the United States. Focused policies and programs aimed at reducing rates of SMY cigarette use are warranted, particularly for youth questioning their sexual identity.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Article ReferenceComparing National Probability and Community‑Based Samples of Sexual Minority Adults: Implications and Recommendations for Sampling and Measurement
Scientific evidence regarding sexual minority populations has generally come from studies based on two types of samples: community-derived samples and probability samples. Probability samples are lauded as the gold standard of population research for their ability to represent the population of interest. However, while studies using community samples lack generalizability, they are often better able to assess population-specific concerns (e.g., minority stress) and are collected more rapidly, allowing them to be more responsive to changing population dynamics. Given these advantages, many sexual minority population studies rely on community samples. To identify how probability and community samples of sexual minorities are similar and different, we compared participant characteristics from two companion samples from the  Generations Study , each designed with the same demographic profile of U.S. sexual minority adults in mind. The first sample was recruited for a national probability survey, whereas the second was recruited for a multicommunity sample from four U.S. cities. We examined sociodemographic differences between the samples. Although there were several statistical differences between samples, the effect sizes were small for sociodemographic characteristics that defined the sample inclusion criteria: sex assigned at birth, race/ethnicity, and age cohort. The samples differed across other characteristics: bisexual respondents, respondents with less education, and those living in non-urban areas were underrepresented in the community sample. Our findings offer insights for recruiting community samples of sexual minority populations and for measuring sexual identity on probability surveys. They also bolster confidence in well-designed community samples as sources for data on sexual minority populations.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Correlates of Health Promotion in a Community Sample of African American Churches
Though many African American churches offer health promotion activities to their members, less is known about organizational factors that predict the availability of this programming. This study examines organizational capacity as a predictor of the amount and type of health programming offered by a convenience sample of 119 African American churches. Leaders completed a survey of health promotion activities provided in the previous 12 months and a measure of organizational capacity. Churches offered an average of 6.08 (SD = 2.15) different health programs targeting 4.66 (SD = 3.63) topics. Allocation of space and having a health ministry were positively associated with both the number of health programs and health topics addressed. When seeking to initiate health programming in an African American church setting, it is recommended that stakeholders partner with churches that have existing structures to support health promotion such as a health ministry, or help them build this capacity.  
Located in MPRC People / Craig Fryer, Dr.P.H. / Craig Fryer Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Creating Supportive Environments for LGBT Older Adults: An Efficacy Evaluation of Staff Training in a Senior Living Facility
Supportive housing later in life tends to be a key concern for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) elders. Most senior care providers are un(der)prepared to meet the needs of older LGBT adults. This study evaluated the efficacy of a 4 h, face-to-face, research-based, LGBT-diversity training designed to improve senior housing facility staff’s cultural competency regarding the needs of LGBT elders. Findings from this study found a significant increase in LGBT content knowledge between pre- and post-intervention assessments and a significant decrease in perceived preparedness when working with LGBT elders. These effects remained significant after controlling for staff designation, religion, educational attainment, and training session. Findings suggest that staff’s cultural competence affected their perceived readiness to address LGBT elders’ needs. Implications are related to the concept of cultural humility or the lifelong process of understanding others’ experiences based on the recognition of lack of un(der)preparedness to create a culturally supportive residential environment.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Do changes in neighborhood social context mediate the effects of the moving to opportunity experiment on adolescent mental health?
This study investigated whether changes in neighborhood context induced by neighborhood relocation mediated the impact of the Moving to Opportunity (MTO) housing voucher experiment on adolescent mental health. Mediators included participant-reported neighborhood safety, social control, disorder, and externally-collected neighborhood collective efficacy. For treatment group members, improvement in neighborhood disorder and drug activity partially explained MTO's beneficial effects on girls' distress. Improvement in neighborhood disorder, violent victimization, and informal social control helped counteract MTO's adverse effects on boys' behavioral problems, but not distress. Housing mobility policy targeting neighborhood improvements may improve mental health for adolescent girls, and mitigate harmful effects for boys.
Located in MPRC People / Quynh Nguyen, Ph.D., M.S.P.H. / Quynh Nguyen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Do neighborhood characteristics contribute beyond individual demographics to cancer control behaviors among African American adults?
Background Recent years have seen increased interest in the role of neighborhood factors in chronic diseases such as cancers. Less is known about the role of neighborhood factors beyond individual demographics such as age or education. It is particularly important to examine neighborhood effects on health among African American men and women, considering the disproportionate impact of cancer on this group. This study evaluated the unique contribution of neighborhood characteristics (e.g., racial/ethnic diversity, income) beyond individual demographics, to cancer control behaviors in African American men and women. Methods Individual-level data were drawn from a national survey (N = 2,222). Participants’ home addresses were geocoded and merged with neighborhood data from the American Community Survey. Multi-level regressions examined the unique contribution of neighborhood characteristics beyond individual demographics, to a variety of cancer risk, prevention, and screening behaviors. Results Neighborhood racial/ethnic diversity, median income, and percentage of home ownership made modest significant contributions beyond individual factors, in particular to smoking status where these factors were associated with lower likelihood of smoking (ps < .05). Men living in neighborhoods with older residents, and greater income and home ownership were significantly more likely to report prostate specific antigen testing (ps < .05). Regional analyses suggested different neighborhood factors were associated with smoking status depending on the region. Conclusion Findings provide a more nuanced understanding of the interplay of social determinants of health and neighborhood social environment among African American men and women, with implications for cancer control interventions to eliminate cancer disparities.
Located in Retired Persons / Caryn Bell, Ph.D. / Caryn Bell Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Environmental Justice and the Food Environment in Prince George’s County, Maryland: Assessment of Three Communities
Lack of access to a health-promoting food environment can lead to poor health outcomes including obesity which is a problem for African-Americans in Prince George’s County, Maryland. Previous research examined the quality of the food environment at the regional level but did not consider local level indicators. In this study, we utilized an environmental justice framework to examine the local food environment in the County. We collected data from 127 food outlets, (convenience stores, grocery stores, and supermarkets), in three racially and socioeconomically diverse communities – Bladensburg (predominantly African American/ Black, with the lowest median household income); Greenbelt (similar percentage of non-white persons as Hyattsville, with the highest median household income); and Hyattsville (dominated by a Hispanic population). We examined the availability, quality, and accessibility of food within each community, using a modified version of the Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future (CLF) healthy food availability index (HFAI).We also used ArcMap 10.6 to examine the spatial distribution of stores in relation to sociodemographic factors and generate descriptive statistics to examine HFAI score differences across the communities, sociodemographic composition, and store types at the block group level. Mean HFAI scores were 7.76, 10.75, and 9.60 for Bladensburg, Greenbelt, and Hyattsville, respectively suggesting a relative disparity in access to diverse healthy and good quality food sources for these communities although these differences were not statistically significant (p=0.79). Statistically significant differences between the communities were found with respect to ethnic stores, stores that sold fresh vegetables (p=0.047), and stores that sold fresh fruits (p=0.012). Getis-Ord Gi Hot Spot Analysis revealed one statistically significant cold spot at 95% confidence, and two others at 90% confidence in Hyattsville, indicating a cluster of low-scoring stores. The results indicate a potential need for expanded food infrastructure in these communities to improve public health. We also identified the need for culturally appropriate foods and proposed ethnic stores as potential salutogens to improve the food environment in culturally diverse neighborhoods.
Located in MPRC People / Sacoby Wilson, Ph.D., M.S. / Sacoby Wilson Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Everyday and major experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and sleep health in a multiethnic population of U.S. women: Findings from the Sister Study
Background Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and poor sleep occur across all races/ethnicities in the U.S., though both are most common among racial/ethnic minorities. Few studies have investigated associations between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and various sleep dimensions in a multiethnic population. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional associations among 40,038 eligible Sister Study participants (enrollment: 2003-2009) who reported ever/never experiencing specific types of everyday (e.g., treated unfairly at a store or restaurant) or major (e.g., unfairly stopped, threatened, or searched by police) discrimination attributed to their race/ethnicity during a follow-up survey in 2008-2012. Participants also reported short sleep duration (<7 hours), sleep debt (≥2-hour difference between longest and shortest sleep duration), frequent napping (≥3 times/week), and insomnia. Poisson regression with robust variance estimation, adjusted for sociodemographic and health characteristics, estimated prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between each type of racial/ethnic discrimination and each sleep dimension, overall and by race/ethnicity. Results Mean age was 55 ± 8.9 years, 89% were NH-white, 8% NH-black, and 3% Hispanic/Latina. NH-black participants were the most likely to report everyday (76% vs. 4% [NH-whites] and 36% [Hispanics/Latinas]) and major racial/ethnic discrimination (52% vs. 2% [NH-whites] and 18% [Hispanics/Latinas]). Participants who experienced both types versus neither were more likely to report short sleep duration (PR=1.17 [95% CI: 1.09-1.25]) and insomnia symptoms (PR=1.10 [1.01-1.20]) but not other poor sleep dimensions. Conclusions Racial/ethnic minority women were most likely to experience racial/ethnic discrimination, which was associated with certain poor sleep dimensions among women of all races/ethnicities.
Located in Retired Persons / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications