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Article ReferenceGender inequalities and household fuel choice in India
The use of solid cooking fuels—wood, straw, crop residue, and cow-dung cakes—is associated with higher levels of environmental pollution and health burden. However, even in an era when incomes have grown and poverty has declined, the proportion of Indian households using clean cooking fuels such as kerosene or Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) has increased only slightly. Even among the wealthiest quintile, only about 40 percent of the households rely solely on clean fuel. Since the chores of cooking and collection of fuel remain primarily the domain of women, we argue that intra-household gender inequalities play an important role in shaping the household decision to invest in clean fuel. Analyses using data from the India Human Development Survey (IHDS), a panel survey of over 41,000 households conducted in two waves in 2004-05 and 2011–12, respectively, show that women's access to salaried work and control over household expenditure decisions is associated with the use of clean fuel.
Located in MPRC People / Sonalde Desai, Ph.D. / Sonalde Desai Publications
Melissa Kearney featured in Today on Possible Baby Boom after COVID-19
Experts believe the COVID-19 pandemic will not result in a rise in the American birthrate
Located in News
Thurka Sangaramoorthy featured in The Baltimore Sun on Maryland Crab Workers during COVID-19
This year’s crabbing season is fraught with difficult choices for the nearly all-foreign-women workers during the pandemic hit
Located in News
MPRC presentations at Virtual PAA Annual Meeting
The PAA Annual Meeting has gone virtual
Located in News
Philip Cohen featured in The Hill on Domestic Violence During COVID-19 Quarantine
Police departments across the country are reporting a spike in domestic violence cases as stay-at-home orders put victims and their abusers in constant proximity.
Located in News
Article ReferenceAssociation Between First Depressive Episode in the Same Year as Sexual Debut and Teenage Pregnancy
Purpose This study aimed to examine whether the timing of depression onset relative to age at sexual debut is associated with teenage pregnancy. Methods Using data from 1,025 adolescent girls who reported having had sex in the National Comorbidity Survey—Adolescent Supplement, we applied cox proportional hazards models to test whether depression onset before first sex, at the same age as first sex, or after first sex compared with no depression onset was associated with experiencing a first teenage pregnancy. We examined the unadjusted risk by depression status as well as risk adjusted for adolescents' race/ethnicity, marital status, poverty level, whether the adolescent lived in a metropolitan area, living status, age at first sex, parental education, and age of mother when the adolescent was born. Results In both unadjusted and adjusted models, we found that adolescents with depression onset at the same age as having initiated sex were at an increased risk of experiencing a teenage pregnancy (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08–5.96; adjusted HR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.15–6.34) compared with those with no depression onset. Moreover, compared with those with no depression onset, the risk of pregnancy for girls experiencing depression onset before first sex also increased but was not significant (adjusted HR = 1.5, 95% CI: .82–2.76). Conclusions Timing of first depressive episode relative to age at first sexual intercourse plays a critical role in determining the risk of teenage pregnancy. Timely diagnosis and treatment of depression may not only help adolescents' mental well-being but may also help them prevent teenage pregnancy.
Located in MPRC People / Marie Thoma, Ph.D. / Marie Thoma Publications
Article ReferenceAssociation Between First Depressive Episode in the Same Year as Sexual Debut and Teenage Pregnancy
Purpose This study aimed to examine whether the timing of depression onset relative to age at sexual debut is associated with teenage pregnancy. Methods Using data from 1,025 adolescent girls who reported having had sex in the National Comorbidity Survey—Adolescent Supplement, we applied cox proportional hazards models to test whether depression onset before first sex, at the same age as first sex, or after first sex compared with no depression onset was associated with experiencing a first teenage pregnancy. We examined the unadjusted risk by depression status as well as risk adjusted for adolescents' race/ethnicity, marital status, poverty level, whether the adolescent lived in a metropolitan area, living status, age at first sex, parental education, and age of mother when the adolescent was born. Results In both unadjusted and adjusted models, we found that adolescents with depression onset at the same age as having initiated sex were at an increased risk of experiencing a teenage pregnancy (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08–5.96; adjusted HR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.15–6.34) compared with those with no depression onset. Moreover, compared with those with no depression onset, the risk of pregnancy for girls experiencing depression onset before first sex also increased but was not significant (adjusted HR = 1.5, 95% CI: .82–2.76). Conclusions Timing of first depressive episode relative to age at first sexual intercourse plays a critical role in determining the risk of teenage pregnancy. Timely diagnosis and treatment of depression may not only help adolescents' mental well-being but may also help them prevent teenage pregnancy.
Located in MPRC People / Julia Steinberg, Ph.D. / Julia Steinberg Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Quantiles of the Gain Distribution of an Early Childhood Intervention
We offer a new strategy to identify the distribution of treatment effects using data from the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP), a relatively understudied early-childhood intervention for low birth-weight infants. We introduce a new policy parameter, QCD, which denotes quantiles of the effect distribution conditional on latent neonatal health. The dependence between potential outcomes originates from a new class of factor models where latent health can affect the location and shape of distributions. We first show that QCD depends on quantiles of marginal outcome distributions given latent health. We then achieve identification of these marginal distributions and QCD by proxying latent health with neonatal anthropometrics and accounting for measurement error in these proxies. The effects of enrolling in IHDP are widely distributed across children and depend on neonatal health. Moreover, the large average effects documented in past work for close to normal birth weight children from low-income families are driven by a minority of children in this group.
Located in MPRC People / Erich Battistin, Ph.D. / Erich Battistin Publications
Exploring perceived coercive aspects of transactional sex in Central Uganda
Kirsten Stoebenau examines the Central Uganda Adolescent Girls and Young Women (AGYW)'s participation in transactional sex
Located in Research / Selected Research
Philip Cohen comments on Possible Baby Boom after COVID-19 Quarantine on USA Today
The stay-at-home coronavirus orders are unprecedented in America but the speculation about a possible baby boom afterward has generated heat discussion on social media
Located in News