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Population Health Trends among Hetrosexual and Sexual Minority Adults
Jessica N. Fish, Family Science, investigates sexual-orientation-related disparities in mental, behavioral, and physical health
Located in Resources / / Seed Grant Program / Seed Grants Awarded
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Prevalence and Correlates of Alcohol Consumption During Pregnancy in Georgia: Evidence from a National Survey
Background: While alcohol consumption is pervasive in the country of Georgia, the extent of alcohol consumption among pregnant women is yet to be examined. The goal of this study is to examine prevalence and correlates of alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Georgia. Methods: Using data from the World Health Organization’s Stepwise approach to noncommunicable disease risk factor surveillance in Georgia, this study examined prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of alcohol use among pregnant women in Georgia. The study sample of reproductive age (18-45) women was drawn from the STEPS, which is a large and nationally representative survey of adults with a 95% participation rate. Frequencies, multivariate analyses and related statistics were computed to describe and study associations among the target population and the odds of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Results: Only 66 individuals in the sample were pregnant. About 13% of pregnant women consumed alcohol in the past 30 days and nearly 70% of them engaged in binge drinking on at least one occasion. Pregnant women who were young, married, homemakers, living in two-member households and in the lowest bracket of monthly income had the highest likelihood of consuming alcohol and binge drinking. The study results were statistically significant (p< .05). Conclusions: This study reveals the magnitude of alcohol consumption and binge drinking among reproductive age women in Georgia. This study also shows prevalence and correlates of alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Georgia. The results identify characteristics of women who are most likely to use alcohol during pregnancy. Given that, alcohol use is a modifiable behavioral risk factor, the findings in this study provide the foundation for evidence-based prevention strategies that target pregnant and reproductive age women.
Located in MPRC People / Manouchehr (Mitch) Mokhtari, Ph.D. / Mitch Mokhtari Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Punishment and Inequality at an Early Age: Exclusionary Discipline in Elementary School
We advance current knowledge of school punishment by examining (1) the prevalence of exclusionary discipline in elementary school, (2) racial disparities in exclusionary discipline in elementary school, and (3) the association between exclusionary discipline and aggressive behavior in elementary school. Using child and parent reports from the Fragile Families Study, we estimate that more than one in ten children born between 1998 and 2000 in large US cities were suspended or expelled by age nine, when most were in third grade. We also find extreme racial disparity; about 40 percent of non-Hispanic black boys were suspended or expelled, compared to 8 percent of non-Hispanic white or other-race boys. Disparities are largely due to differences in children’s school and home environments rather than to behavior problems. Next, consistent with social stress and strain theories, we find suspension or expulsion associated with increased aggressive behavior in elementary school. This association does not vary by race but is robust to a rich set of covariates, within-individual fixed effects, and matching methods. In conjunction with what we find for racial disparities, our results imply that school discipline policies relying heavily on exclusionary punishment may be fostering childhood inequality.
Located in MPRC People / Wade C Jacobsen, Ph.D. / Wade Jacobsen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Quantiles of the Gain Distribution of an Early Childhood Intervention
We offer a new strategy to identify the distribution of treatment effects using data from the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP), a relatively understudied early-childhood intervention for low birth-weight infants. We introduce a new policy parameter, QCD, which denotes quantiles of the effect distribution conditional on latent neonatal health. The dependence between potential outcomes originates from a new class of factor models where latent health can affect the location and shape of distributions. We first show that QCD depends on quantiles of marginal outcome distributions given latent health. We then achieve identification of these marginal distributions and QCD by proxying latent health with neonatal anthropometrics and accounting for measurement error in these proxies. The effects of enrolling in IHDP are widely distributed across children and depend on neonatal health. Moreover, the large average effects documented in past work for close to normal birth weight children from low-income families are driven by a minority of children in this group.
Located in MPRC People / Erich Battistin, Ph.D. / Erich Battistin Publications
File Troff document (with manpage macros)Race, Family Status and Young Women’s Residential and Financial Dependency: 1970-2010
Joan Kahn and Frances Goldscheider, University of Maryland; Javier Garcia-Manglano, Oxford University // Keywords : Living arrangements, financial dependency, race, marriage, unmarried parenthood, young adulthood; 2015-005
Located in Research / Working Papers / WP Documents
Racial Disparities in Maternal Mortality
Associates Marian MacDorman and Marie Thoma, with colleagues Eugene DeClerq and Elizabeth Howell examine birth records
Located in Research / Selected Research
Rebeca Wong, University of Texas Medical Branch
Cross-national research on population aging: challenges and experiences with the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS)
Located in Coming Up
Rebecca Thornton, Baylor University
Long-Lasting Effects of Bible Translations on Literacy: Evidence from Sub-Sahara Africa
Located in Coming Up
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Reconsidering Approaches to Estimating Health Disparities Across Multiple Measures of Sexual Orientation
Purpose:  We propose a new theoretically grounded approach for estimating sexual orientation-related health risk that accounts for the unique and shared variance of sexual identity across other measures of sexual orientation (i.e., attraction and behavior). We argue and illustrate that this approach provides specificity not demonstrated by approaches that independently estimate and compare health risk based on sexual identity, attraction, and behavior. Methods:  Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III, collected in 2012–2013 (N = 36,309, ages 18 and older). The Karlson-Holm-Breen method tested the degree to which attraction- and behavior-based disparities in mental health and substance use disorders change after adjusting for sexual identity. Results:  Sexual attraction- and behavior-based disparities in mental health and substance use disorders statistically varied when comparing models that did and did not adjust for sexual identity. Adjusting for sexual identity appeared to have a larger influence on attraction- and behavior-based health associations among men; sexual minority and majority differences were attenuated on nearly every outcome after adjusting for sexual identity. This attenuation was less common among women. Among women, some behavior-based disparities were wider in sexual identity-adjusted models relative to unadjusted models. Conclusion:  We demonstrate more accurate approaches to capturing and comparing sexual orientation-related health disparities across multiple measures of sexual orientation, which account for the shared variance between sexual identity and measures of attraction and behavior. Adjusted estimates provide more specificity regarding relative health risk across specific subgroups of sexual minority people, and the intervention and prevention strategies needed to address them.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
File Troff document (with manpage macros)Retrospective Reporting of First Employment in the Life Courses of U.S. Women
Michael S. Rendall and Rachel Shattuck, University of Maryland; 2015-015
Located in Research / Working Papers / WP Documents