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Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Pathways to Depressive Symptoms among Former Inmates
Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we examine the association between incarceration and depressive symptoms among a sample of 13,131 young adults. We find that a history of incarceration is associated with a higher expected rate of depressive symptoms and that this relationship operates most strongly through material hardship. We find no differences in the main effect of incarceration across groups, but we find that the role of certain mediating variables may vary, with marital and employment status being a stronger mediator for males than females, and marriage being a stronger mediator for whites compared to blacks and Hispanics. Our results suggest that incarceration constitutes a potent stressor, but that the pathways to depressive symptoms may differ.
Located in MPRC People / Lauren Porter, Ph.D. / Lauren Porter Publications
Effects of Depression on Contraceptive Behavior
Julia Steinberg will use an NICHD K01 grant to investigate the impact of depression throughout the reproductive cycle
Located in Research / Selected Research
Article ReferenceThe Rejection Sensitivity Model: Sexual Minority Adolescents in Context
Theoretical and empirical integration of the rejection sensitivity (RS) model to sexual minority people is one of the few attempts to extend existing theoretical frameworks that explain mental health disparities for this population, namely the minority stress framework (Meyer,  2003 ) and its extensions (Hatzenbuehler,  2009 ; Testa, Habarth, Peta, Balsam, & Bockting,  2015 ). Theoretical origins of RS are rooted in the desire to understand how rejection from significant others affects subsequent other close relationships (Downey & Feldman,  1996 ). This was later extended to conceptualize rejection based on membership of a stigmatized group and modified to understand sexual orientation-related RS among sexual minorities (Dyar, Feinstein, Eaton, & London,  2016 ; Pachankis, Goldfried, & Ramrattan,  2008 ). Feinstein ( 2019 ) brings new life to this adapted application by grounding and integrating the basic tenets of sexual orientation-related RS alongside a critical health compromising process of minority stress: vigilance. Meyer theorized vigilance as a core form of proximal minority stressors and explains that “LGB people learn to anticipate—indeed, expect—negative regard from members of the dominant culture. To ward off potential negative regard, discrimination, and violence, they must be vigilant” and this vigilance is “related to feared possible (even if imagined) negative events” (Meyer,  2003 , p. 680–681). Feinstein explains that existing theoretical frameworks (Hatzenbuehler,  2009 ; Meyer,  2003 ) mention vigilance and RS as important processes, but lack a comprehensive integration of these concepts. Given that schemas for RS are formed early in the life course, we focus on the applicability to sexual minority adolescents, and other marginalized groups.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)How Early Is Too Early? Identification of Elevated, Persistent Problem Behavior in Childhood
We inquire how early in childhood children most at risk for problematic patterns of internalizing and externalizing behaviors can be accurately classified. Yearly measures of anxiety/depressive symptoms and aggressive behaviors (ages 6–13;  n  = 334), respectively, are used to identify behavioral trajectories. We then assess the degree to which limited spans of yearly information allow for the correct classification into the elevated, persistent pattern of the problem behavior, identified theoretically and empirically as high-risk and most in need of intervention. The true positive rate (sensitivity) is below 70% for anxiety/depressive symptoms and aggressive behaviors using behavioral information through ages 6 and 7. Conversely, by age 9, over 90% of the high-risk individuals are correctly classified (i.e., sensitivity) for anxiety/depressive symptoms, but this threshold is not met until age 12 for aggressive behaviors. Notably, the false positive rate of classification for both high-risk problem behaviors is consistently low using each limited age span of data (< 5%). These results suggest that correct classification into highest risk groups of childhood problem behavior is limited using behavioral information observed at early ages. Prevention programming targeting those who will display persistent, elevated levels of problem behavior should be cognizant of the degree of misclassification and how this varies with the accumulation of behavioral information. Continuous assessment of problem behaviors is needed throughout childhood in order to continually identify high-risk individuals most in need of intervention as behavior patterns are sufficiently realized.
Located in MPRC People / Terence Thornberry, Ph.D. / Terence Thornberry Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Medicaid Instability and Mental Health of Teen Parent Families
This study examines the effect of inconsistent  Medicaid coverage  on  parenting stress , maternal depression, and child behavior in a sample of teen mothers and their children. The majority (54%) of mothers experienced inconsistent coverage. After 24 months, mothers experiencing inconsistent coverage had significantly higher  parenting stress  and depressive symptoms, and their children had more internalizing behaviors than families with consistent Medicaid. These differences existed despite no initial differences and controlling for numerous covariates. Policies and practices that stabilize  Medicaid coverage  for teen parent families may reduce unnecessary stress, depressive symptoms, and early childhood behavior problems.
Located in MPRC People / Amy Lewin, Psy.D. / Amy Lewin Publications
Stephen Gilman, NICHD
The developmental origins of disparities in common mental disorders
Located in Coming Up
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Perceived stress and incident sexually transmitted infections in a prospective cohort
Purpose Psychosocial stress has been associated with susceptibility to many infectious pathogens. We evaluated the association between perceived stress and incident sexually transmitted infections (STIs;  Chlamydia trachomatis ,  Neisseria gonorrhoeae , and  Trichomonas vaginalis  genital infections) in a prospective study of women. Stress may increase vulnerability to STIs by suppressing immune function and altering the protective vaginal microbiota. Methods Using the 1999 Longitudinal Study of Vaginal Flora (n  = 2439), a primarily African American cohort of women, we fitted Cox proportional hazards models to examine the association between perceived stress and incident STIs. We tested  bacterial vaginosis  (measured by Nugent Score) and sexual behaviors (condom use, number of partners, and partner concurrence) as mediators using VanderWeele's difference method. Results Baseline perceived stress was associated with incident STIs both before and after adjusting for confounders (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.015; 95% confidence interval, 1.005–1.026). Nugent score and sexual behaviors significantly mediated 21% and 65% of this adjusted association, respectively, and 78% when included together in the adjusted model. Conclusions This study advances understanding of the relationship between perceived stress and STIs and identifies high-risk sexual behaviors and development of bacterial vaginosis—both known risk factors for STIs—as mechanisms underlying this association.
Located in MPRC People / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications
Opioid Use Disorder, mental illness lack treatment when co-occuring
Jie Chen and colleagues will publish a study examining the behavioral health treatment among individuals with co-occurring opioid use disorder and mental illness
Located in Research / Selected Research
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Barriers to health care access among US adults with chronic conditions and co-occurring serious psychological distress between 2011-2015
Importance: Nearly 34 million adults – 17 percent of all American adults – have co-occurring mental and physical health conditions. However, the extent to which increased health insurance coverage has facilitated access to needed health care services among this population remains unclear. Objective: Prior research suggests that people with serious psychological distress (SPD) and cancer, heart disease, diabetes, asthma, or hypertension report worse access to care than people with the same physical conditions but no SPD. While the recent expansion in health insurance coverage was expected to improve access to care for people with SPD, access barriers that people with SPD report remain underexplored. Setting: Using the cross-sectional data from the National Health Interview Survey 2011-2015, we examined self-reported health care access barriers among adults (between ages 18 to 64) with SPD and co-occurring physical health conditions. Results: Our sample included 45,294 individuals with chronic conditions (heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, cancer, or asthma). Among them, 3,639 also had SPD. After controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors, results of multivariate logistic regressions showed that individuals with co-occurring SPD and a physical health condition were significantly more likely to report that they had worse health insurance coverage compared to the prior year (OR=1.32, p<0.01), that doctor's office informed that they were not accepting new patients (OR=2.09, p<0.001), that the doctor's office stated they did not accept the particular health insurance they have (OR=1.98, p<0.001), that they couldn't get an appointment soon enough (OR=2.42, p<0.001), they had no transportation to get to the doctor (OR=3.23, p<0.001), and that overall they had trouble finding a doctor/provider (OR=2.12, p<0.001). Conclusions: Our results suggest that despite an increase in health insurance coverage between 2011 and 2015, barriers to access remain a significant concern for individuals with co-occurring SPD and physical health conditions.
Located in MPRC People / Jie Chen, Ph.D. / Jie Chen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Accountable Care Organizations and Preventable Hospitalizations Among Patients With Depression
Introduction Accountable care organizations have been successful in improving quality of care, but little is known about who is benefiting from accountable care organizations and through what mechanism. This study examined variation of potentially preventable hospitalizations for chronic conditions with coexisting depression in adults by hospital accountable care organization affiliation and care coordination strategies by race/ethnicity. Methods Data  files of 11 states from 2015 State Inpatient Databases were used to identify potentially preventable hospitalizations for chronic conditions with coexisting depression by race/ethnicity; the 2015 American Hospital Association's Annual Survey was used to identify hospital accountable care organization affiliation; and American Hospital Association's Survey of Care Systems and Payment (collected from January to August 2016) was used to identify hospital Accountable care organizations affiliation and hospital-based care coordination strategies, such as telephonic outreach, and chronic care management. In 2019, multiple logistic regressions was used to test the probability of potentially preventable hospitalization by accountable care organization affiliation and race/ethnicity. The test was repeated on a subsample analysis of accountable care organization–affiliated hospitals by care coordination strategy. Results Preventable hospitalizations were significantly lower among accountable care organization–affiliated hospitals than accountable care organization–unaffiliated hospitals. Lower preventable hospitalization rates were observed among white, African American, Native American, and Hispanic patients. Effective care coordination strategies varied by patients’ race. Results also showed variation of the adoption of specific care coordination strategies among accountable care organization–affiliated hospitals. Analysis further indicated effective care coordination strategies varied by patients’ race. Conclusions Accountable care organizations and specifically designed care coordination strategies can potentially improve preventable hospitalization rates and racial disparities among patients with depression. Findings support the integration of mental and physical health services and provide insights for Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services risk adjustment efforts across race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status.
Located in MPRC People / Jie Chen, Ph.D. / Jie Chen Publications