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Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Utilization of essential preventive health services among Asians after the implementation of the preventive services provisions of the Affordable Care Act
Utilization of cost-effective essential preventive health services increased after the implementation of the Affordable Care Act’s (ACA) provision that non-grandfathered private insurers provide cost-effective preventive services without cost sharing in 2010. Little is known, however, whether this change is also observed among Asians in the US. We examined patterns of preventive services utilization among Asian subgroups relative to non-Latino whites (whites) after the implementation of the ACA’s preventive services provisions. Using 2013–2016 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data, we examined utilization trends in preventive services among Asian Indians, Chinese, Filipinos, and other Asians relative to whites. We also ran logistic regression models to estimate the likelihood of having received each of the seven essential preventive services (routine checkups, flu vaccinations, cholesterol screenings, blood pressure checkups, Papanicolaou “pap” tests, mammograms, and colorectal cancer screenings). Compared to whites, Asians had higher rates of utilization of routine checkups, cholesterol screenings, and flu vaccinations, but they had lower utilization rates of blood pressure checkups, pap tests, and mammograms. The patterns of preventive services utilization differed across the Asian subgroups. All Asian subgroups, except for Filipinos, were less likely to have pap tests or mammograms than whites. Moreover, we observed a decreasing trend in having pap tests, mammograms, or colorectal cancer screenings among all Asian subgroups between 2013 and 2016. Our findings suggest that there are low cancer screening rates across Asian subgroups. This indicates the need for programs tailored to specific Asian subgroups to improve cancer screening.
Located in MPRC People / Jie Chen, Ph.D. / Jie Chen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Sex-Specific Associations Between Area-Level Poverty and Cardiometabolic Dysfunction Among US Adolescents
Objective: Cardiometabolic disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Cardiometabolic function during adolescence predicts future cardiometabolic disease, yet few studies have examined early determinants of cardiometabolic function. Informed by evidence of sex differences in the prevalence and severity of cardiometabolic disorders and evidence of sexual dimorphism in the stress response, we examined sex differences in the association between living in poverty and cardiometabolic function during adolescence, a precursor of later cardiometabolic disorders. Methods: We linked data from 10 415 adolescents aged 12-19 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2012) with US Census–tract data on area-level poverty (percentage of the population living in poverty, grouped into quartiles). We parameterized cardiometabolic dysfunction by summing the z scores of 6 cardiometabolic biomarkers, grouped into quintiles. Hierarchical ordinal models estimated associations. Results: Compared with residents in low-poverty areas, residents in high-poverty areas had elevated odds of cardiometabolic dysfunction (highest quartile of poverty odds ratio [OR] = 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.50). This association was more pronounced among boys than girls (highest quartile of poverty for boys: OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.10-1.70; highest quartile of poverty for girls: OR = 1.17; 95% CI, 0.94-1.47). Conclusion: Our study supports the existence of sex-specific associations. These results highlight the potential for community-based programs, such as housing assistance, to improve population health.
Located in MPRC People / Edmond Shenassa, Ph.D. / Edmond Shenassa Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)The association between first abortion and first-time non-fatal suicide attempt: a longitudinal cohort study of Danish population registries
Background Suicidal ideation due to abortion has been used to justify restrictive US abortion policies. Much research examining abortion and mental health has relied on self-report, has had low participation rates, and did not consider confounding factors. In the present study, we used data that do not rely on self-report and are not affected by low participation rates to examine the association between abortion and non-fatal suicide attempts, adjusting for confounding factors. Methods In this longitudinal cohort study of Danish population registries, we linked data on a cohort of women born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1980, and Dec 30, 1998, who did not die or emigrate from Denmark before their 18th birthday or before study entry. Follow-up started on the woman's 18th birthday or Jan 1, 2000, whichever came last. Follow-up ended at the date of first suicide attempt, date of emigration from Denmark, date of death, or Dec 31, 2016, whichever came first. Women were between the ages of 18 and 36 years during the study period. We used a survival analysis to examine the risk of first suicide attempts or self-harm associated with a first abortion compared with no abortion, in the complete study cohort. To examine incidence rate ratios (IRRs) associated with abortion, we used Poisson regression with the logarithm of woman-years at risk as an offset. We also examined whether the risk of suicide attempts changed before and after the abortion, adjusting for age, calendar year, socioeconomic status, and history of childbirth, mental health, parental mental health, and physical health. Findings Data on 523 280 women were included in this study. Of these, 48 990 (9·4%) women had a record of at least one first-trimester abortion, and 10 216 (2·0%) had a suicide attempt during the study period. Among 48 990 women who had an abortion, 1402 (2·9%) had a first suicide attempt after the first abortion. In our fully-adjusted model which adjusted for all covariates, the risk of first-time non-fatal suicide attempts was similar in the year before an abortion (IRR 2·46 [95% CI 2·22–2·72]) and the year after an abortion (IRR 2·54 [2·29–2·81], p=0·509) compared with women who had not had an abortion, and decreased with increasing time since the abortion (1–5 years IRR 1·90 [1·75–2·06]; ≥5 years IRR 1·73 [1·53–1·96]). Interpretation We found that women who had abortions had a higher risk of non-fatal suicide attempts compared with women who did not have an abortion. However, because the increased risk was the same both the year before and after the abortion, it is not attributable to the abortion. Thus, policies based on the notion that abortion increases women's risk of suicide attempts are misinformed.
Located in MPRC People / Julia Steinberg, Ph.D. / Julia Steinberg Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Sexual Orientation Disparities in Substance Use: Investigating Social Stress Mechanisms in a National Sample
Introduction: Sexual minorities are disproportionately more likely than heterosexuals to suffer from substance use disorders, but relatively little is known about differences in substance use disorders across diverse sexual minority subgroups. There is also limited understanding of how different social stressors account for sexual orientation disparities in substance use disorders. Methods: Using nationally representative data collected in 2012−2013 (n=34,597), differences in past-year DSM-5 alcohol, cannabis, and tobacco use disorders were assessed across 4 sexual orientation groups (heterosexuals and 3 sexual minority subgroups, lesbian/gay-, bisexual-, and heterosexual-identified sexual minorities). This study assessed whether stressful life events mediated substance use disorder disparities between heterosexuals and each sexual minority subgroup, and whether stressful life events and lesbian, gay, and bisexual discrimination events mediated these substance use disorder differences. Analyses were conducted in 2019. Results: For both men and women, substance use disorders and stress experiences varied by sexual identity. For example, compared with heterosexual men, larger proportions of gay and bisexual men had a past-year alcohol use disorder. Among women, all sexual minority subgroups had higher rates of each substance use disorder than heterosexuals. For each substance use disorder, stressful life events mediated disparities between heterosexuals and sexual minority subgroups, except for heterosexual-identified sexual minority men. Both stressful life events and lesbian, gay, and bisexual discrimination mediated substance use disorder differences between sexual minority subgroups, with stronger indirect effects through lesbian, gay, and bisexual discrimination for lesbians/gay men and stronger indirect effects through stressful life events for bisexual adults, generally. Conclusions: Sexual minority subgroups have a greater prevalence of substance use disorders, mediated through both stressful life events and lesbian, gay, and bisexual discrimination. More research is needed to comprehensively assess the processes underlying sexual orientation substance use disparities.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Substance Use Among a National Sample of Sexual and Gender Minority Adolescents: Intersections of Sex Assigned at Birth and Gender Identity
Purpose:  We examined how substance use differed as a function of sex assigned at birth and gender identity (cisgender, transgender, or nonbinary/genderqueer) by type of substance. We sought to test whether current gender identity and sex assigned at birth were key factors in substance use among a large contemporary sample that included transgender and nonbinary/genderqueer adolescents. Methods:  We analyzed data from a large national U.S. sample of sexual and gender minority (SGM) adolescents (n = 11,129) collected between April and December 2017. Chi-square tests of independence were used to test whether substance use behaviors varied by sex assigned at birth and gender identity. A series of multivariate logistic regression models tested the odds of substance use by sex assigned at birth and gender identity, as well as the interaction between sex assigned at birth and gender identity. Results:  More than half of our sample reported lifetime alcohol use, and one-fourth of the sample reported lifetime marijuana use. Adolescents assigned male at birth had higher prevalence of substance use compared with adolescents assigned female at birth (AFAB). Multivariate models elucidated greater risk for most substance use outcomes for transgender adolescents compared with cisgender adolescents. We found significant interaction effects between gender identity and sex assigned at birth for recent alcohol use and lifetime and recent cigarette use among adolescents AFAB. Conclusions:  These findings have implications for stakeholders who develop nationally representative surveys, researchers who examine substance use disparities among SGM adolescents, and mental health professionals who treat underage substance use among vulnerable populations.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Article ReferenceSexual minority youth are at a disadvantage: what now?
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Reforming medical education admission and training in low- and middle-income countries: who gets admitted and why it matters
Recent studies reveal public-sector healthcare providers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are frequently absent from work, solicit informal payments for service delivery, and engage in disrespectful or abusive treatment of patients. While extrinsic factors may foster and facilitate these negative practices, it is not often feasible to alter the external environment in low-resource settings. In contrast, healthcare professionals with strong intrinsic motivation and a desire to serve the needs of their community are less likely to engage in these negative behaviors and may draw upon internal incentives to deliver a high quality of care. Reforming medical education admission and training practices in LMICs is one promising strategy for increasing the prevalence of medical professionals with strong intrinsic motivation.
Located in MPRC People / Kenneth Leonard, Ph.D. / Kenneth Leonard Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Changes in sleep duration associated with retirement transitions: The role of naps
This study examined the changes in sleep duration (total sleep time, night‐time sleep and daytime naps) after retirement transitions in China using a panel dataset of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2011, 2013 and 2015 with a total of 48,458 respondents. Linear regression analysis with generalized estimating equations was employed to examine the changes in sleep duration after transitions between different types of employment status. After controlling for the confounders, the results showed that the retired population and the population working in agricultural sectors slept 8.02 ( p  < .01) and 5.19 ( p  < .01) minutes longer than the population working in non‐agricultural sectors, respectively. Employment transition also had significant effects on sleep duration. Transition from non‐agricultural sectors to retirement increased total sleep time by 13.58 ( p  < .01) minutes and also raised the probability of daytime naps by 18% (OR = 1.18,  p  < .01). Transition from agricultural employment to retirement did not significantly affect the total sleep time, but significantly increased the probability of daytime naps (OR = 1.12,  p  = .02). Reentering the non‐agricultural sectors for the retirees did not significantly affect night‐time sleep, but decreased the probability of daytime naps (OR = 0.73,  p  < .01) and daytime nap duration (by 5.26 min,  p  = .01). In conclusion, people in China increased their sleep duration after transitions to retirement, but the magnitudes were much smaller than those in Western countries. Differences may be attributed to an abundant amount of Chinese people working in agricultural sectors, the high volume of retired people reentering the work force and the large proportion of people in China that had daytime naps at baseline.
Located in MPRC People / Jie Chen, Ph.D. / Jie Chen Publications
Article ReferenceFamily Rejection and Cigarette Smoking Among Sexual and Gender Minority Adolescents in the USA
Background Sexual and gender minority (SGM) adolescents are more likely than their heterosexual and cisgender peers to smoke cigarettes. Family rejection has been associated with adverse health outcomes; however, few studies have examined whether SGM-specific family rejection is associated with cigarette smoking among SGM adolescents. Method A non-probability sample of 11,005 SGM adolescents (M = 15.58, SD = 1.27) completed an online cross-sectional survey. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to examine associations between SGM-specific family rejection, sociodemographic variables, and smoking. Results Approximately 7% of the sample currently smoked cigarettes. Pansexual, asexual, trans boys, and non-binary assigned female at birth adolescents had the highest SGM family rejection scores. In multivariable regression analyses, SGM-specific family rejection was independently associated with smoking after adjusting for covariates (AOR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.04, 1.28). Family support (AOR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.73, 0.88) and experiencing violence (AOR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.49, 1.82) were also associated with smoking in multivariable models. Adolescents who identified as bisexual versus gay/lesbian (AOR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.21, 1.85) and trans boys versus cisgender girls (AOR = 2.05, 95% CI 1.13, 3.71) had an increased odds of smoking. Those who disclosed their sexual orientation identity to most (AOR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.45, 2.63) and all (AOR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.21, 2.11) of their family/parents had increased odds of smoking. Conclusion Our findings underscore the importance of attending to the role of SGM-specific family rejection and distinctions with SGM adolescents in tobacco prevention and smoking cessation efforts.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Association of Extreme Heat Events With Hospital Admission or Mortality Among Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease
Importance   Extreme heat events (EHEs) are increasing in frequency, duration, and intensity, and this trend is projected to continue as part of ongoing climate change. There is a paucity of data regarding how EHEs may affect highly vulnerable populations, such as patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Such data are needed to inform ESRD patient management guidelines in a changing climate. Objectives   To investigate the association between EHEs and the risk of hospital admission or mortality among patients with ESRD and further characterize how this risk may vary among races/ethnicities or patients with preexisting comorbidities. Design, Setting, and Participants   This study used hospital admission and mortality records of patients with ESRD who underwent hemodialysis treatment at Fresenius Kidney Care clinics in Boston, Massachusetts; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; or New York, New York, from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2012. Data were analyzed using a time-stratified case-crossover design with conditional Poisson regression to investigate associations between EHEs and risk of hospital admission or mortality among patients with ESRD. Data were analyzed from July 1, 2017, to March 31, 2019. Exposures   Calendar day– and location-specific 95th-percentile maximum temperature thresholds were calculated using daily meteorological data from 1960 to 1989. These thresholds were used to identify EHEs in each of the 3 cities during the study. Main Outcomes and Measures   Daily all-cause hospital admission and all-cause mortality among patients with ESRD. Results   The study included 7445 patients with ESRD (mean [SD] age, 61.1 [14.1] years; 4283 [57.5%] men), among whom 2953 deaths (39.7%) and 44 941 hospital admissions (mean [SD], 6.0 [7.5] per patient) were recorded. Extreme heat events were associated with increased risk of same-day hospital admission (rate ratio [RR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.13-1.43) and same-day mortality (RR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.01-1.70) among patients with ESRD. There was some heterogeneity in risk, with patients in Boston showing statistically significant increased risk for hospital admission (RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.00-1.31) and mortality (RR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.04-2.02) associated with cumulative exposure to EHEs, while such risk was absent among patients with ESRD in Philadelphia. While increases in risks were similar among non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white patients, findings among Hispanic and Asian patients were less clear. After stratifying by preexisting comorbidities, cumulative lag exposure to EHEs was associated with increased risk of mortality among patients with ESRD living with congestive heart failure (RR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.27-1.89), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (RR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.24-2.06), or diabetes (RR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.51-2.21). Conclusions and Relevance   In this study, extreme heat events were associated with increased risk of hospital admission or mortality among patients with ESRD, and the association was potentially affected by geographic region and race/ethnicity. Future studies with larger populations and broader geographic coverage are needed to better characterize this variability in risk and inform ESRD management guidelines and differential risk variables, given the projected increases in the frequency, duration, and intensity of EHEs.
Located in MPRC People / Amir Sapkota, Ph.D. / Amir Sapkota Publications