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Article ReferenceAssociation Between First Depressive Episode in the Same Year as Sexual Debut and Teenage Pregnancy
Purpose This study aimed to examine whether the timing of depression onset relative to age at sexual debut is associated with teenage pregnancy. Methods Using data from 1,025 adolescent girls who reported having had sex in the National Comorbidity Survey—Adolescent Supplement, we applied cox proportional hazards models to test whether depression onset before first sex, at the same age as first sex, or after first sex compared with no depression onset was associated with experiencing a first teenage pregnancy. We examined the unadjusted risk by depression status as well as risk adjusted for adolescents' race/ethnicity, marital status, poverty level, whether the adolescent lived in a metropolitan area, living status, age at first sex, parental education, and age of mother when the adolescent was born. Results In both unadjusted and adjusted models, we found that adolescents with depression onset at the same age as having initiated sex were at an increased risk of experiencing a teenage pregnancy (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08–5.96; adjusted HR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.15–6.34) compared with those with no depression onset. Moreover, compared with those with no depression onset, the risk of pregnancy for girls experiencing depression onset before first sex also increased but was not significant (adjusted HR = 1.5, 95% CI: .82–2.76). Conclusions Timing of first depressive episode relative to age at first sexual intercourse plays a critical role in determining the risk of teenage pregnancy. Timely diagnosis and treatment of depression may not only help adolescents' mental well-being but may also help them prevent teenage pregnancy.
Located in MPRC People / Julia Steinberg, Ph.D. / Julia Steinberg Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)The reproduction of child maltreatment: An examination of adolescent problem behavior, substance use, and precocious transitions in the link between victimization and perpetration
Growing evidence suggests that maltreatment is reproduced across generations as victims of maltreatment are at an increased risk for maltreatment perpetration. Unfortunately, little information about mediating pathways exists to provide an explanation for why maltreatment begets maltreatment. We use the number of types of maltreatment experienced to predict later maltreatment perpetration and then examine two developmental pathways that may serve as bridges between maltreatment victimization and perpetration: adolescent problem behaviors and precocious transitions to adulthood. With prospective, longitudinal data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, we assess the relevance of these pathways for the number of maltreatment experiences as well as the number of maltreatment victimization experiences by developmental period (i.e., childhood and adolescence). Our results demonstrate a significant relationship between maltreatment victimization and maltreatment perpetration. Adolescent delinquency and two precocious transitions, dropping out of school and independent living, as well as the accumulation of precocious transitions and problem behaviors, serve as mediators of this intergenerational relationship. Furthermore, the relationship between the number of types of maltreatment and subsequent perpetration is primarily driven by experiences of maltreatment during adolescence. We discuss the implications of these results and set an agenda for the development of programs and policies to interrupt the cycle of maltreatment.
Located in MPRC People / Terence Thornberry, Ph.D. / Terence Thornberry Publications
Article ReferenceAssociation Between First Depressive Episode in the Same Year as Sexual Debut and Teenage Pregnancy
Purpose This study aimed to examine whether the timing of depression onset relative to age at sexual debut is associated with teenage pregnancy. Methods Using data from 1,025 adolescent girls who reported having had sex in the National Comorbidity Survey—Adolescent Supplement, we applied cox proportional hazards models to test whether depression onset before first sex, at the same age as first sex, or after first sex compared with no depression onset was associated with experiencing a first teenage pregnancy. We examined the unadjusted risk by depression status as well as risk adjusted for adolescents' race/ethnicity, marital status, poverty level, whether the adolescent lived in a metropolitan area, living status, age at first sex, parental education, and age of mother when the adolescent was born. Results In both unadjusted and adjusted models, we found that adolescents with depression onset at the same age as having initiated sex were at an increased risk of experiencing a teenage pregnancy (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08–5.96; adjusted HR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.15–6.34) compared with those with no depression onset. Moreover, compared with those with no depression onset, the risk of pregnancy for girls experiencing depression onset before first sex also increased but was not significant (adjusted HR = 1.5, 95% CI: .82–2.76). Conclusions Timing of first depressive episode relative to age at first sexual intercourse plays a critical role in determining the risk of teenage pregnancy. Timely diagnosis and treatment of depression may not only help adolescents' mental well-being but may also help them prevent teenage pregnancy.
Located in MPRC People / Marie Thoma, Ph.D. / Marie Thoma Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Beyond the playing field: Coaches as social capital for inner-city adolescent African-American males
In many urban communities, unemployment, substance misuse, violence, and mass incarceration among African-American males has reduced the number of conventional adult male role models. These role models could potentially serve as positive sources of social capital for at-risk adolescent African-American males. An understudied population of black men has a long tradition in the black community as conventional adult male role models, mentors, and social fathers for black male youth. Black male coaches have played a significant role in reducing crime and delinquency among at-risk youth as well as influencing positive youth outcomes. Yet this population of African-American men in disadvantaged communities has received little attention. Using in-depth interviews, community-based participant observations, intensive home observations, and auto-ethnography, this study found that black male coaches serve as a critical form of social capital for black male youth and single parents in high-risk neighborhoods. The results suggest that research needs to focus more on the role of coaches as mentors and in some instances social fathers who provide quality adult supervision, guidance, information, support, encouragement, and community bridges to other forms of social, human, and cultural capital for inner-city black male youth.
Located in MPRC People / Joseph Richardson, Ph.D. / Joseph Richardson Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Trajectories of childhood adversity and the risk of depression in young adulthood: Results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children
  BACKGROUND: The significance of the timing and chronicity of childhood adversity for depression outcomes later in life is unclear. Identifying trajectories of adversity throughout childhood would allow classification of children according to the accumulation, timing, and persistence of adversity, and may provide unique insights into the risk of subsequent depression. METHODS: Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we created a composite adversity score comprised of 10 prospectively assessed domains (e.g., violent victimization, inter-parental conflict, and financial hardship) for each of eight time points from birth through age 11.5 years. We used semiparametric group-based trajectory modeling to derive childhood adversity trajectories and examined the association between childhood adversity and depression outcomes at the age of 18 years. RESULTS: Among 9,665 participants, five adversity trajectories were identified, representing stable-low levels (46.3%), stable-mild levels (37.1%), decreasing levels (8.9%), increasing levels (5.3%), and stable-high levels of adversity (2.5%) from birth through late childhood. Approximately 8% of the sample met criteria for probable depression at 18 years and the mean depression severity score was 3.20 (standard deviation = 3.95, range 0-21). The risk of depression in young adulthood was elevated in the decreasing (odds ratio [OR] = 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19-2.48), increasing (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.15-2.86), and stable-high (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.00-3.23) adversity groups, compared to those with stable-low adversity, when adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Children in trajectory groups characterized by moderate or high levels of adversity at some point in childhood exhibited consistently greater depression risk and depression severity, regardless of the timing of adversity.
Located in Retired Persons / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)The consequences of foster care versus institutional care in early childhood on adolescent cardiometabolic and immune markers: Results from a randomized controlled trial
OBJECTIVE: Children exposed to institutional rearing often exhibit problems across a broad array of developmental domains. We compared the consequences of long-term, high-quality foster care versus standard institution-based care, which began in early childhood on cardiometabolic and immune markers assessed at the time of adolescence. METHODS: The Bucharest Early Intervention Project is a longitudinal investigation of children institutionalized during early childhood (ages 6 to 30 months at baseline) who were subsequently randomized to either high-quality foster care or continued institutional care. At the age of 16 years, 127 respondents participated in a biomarker collection protocol, including 44 institutionalized children randomly assigned to receive care as usual, 41 institutionalized children randomized to be removed from institutional care and placed in high-quality foster care in infancy, and a control group of 42 demographically matched children raised in biological families. Outcomes included body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor α, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, and Epstein-Barr virus antibody titers. RESULTS: Early institutional rearing was not associated with differences in cardiometabolic or immune markers. Randomization to foster care and age of placement into foster care were also unrelated to these markers, with the exception of BMI z-score, where children assigned to care as usual had lower BMI z-scores relative to children assigned to foster care (-0.23 versus 0.08, p = .06), and older age at placement was associated with lower BMI (β = -0.07, p = .03). CONCLUSIONS: The impact of institutional rearing on measures of cardiometabolic health and immune system functioning is either absent or not evident until later in development. These findings provide new insights into the biological embedding of adversity and how it varies developmentally and across regulatory systems and adversity type.
Located in Retired Persons / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Externalizing trajectories predict elevated inflammation among adolescents exposed to early institutional rearing: A randomized clinical trial
  BACKGROUND: There has been mounting interest in the pathophysiological relation between inflammation and psychopathology. In this paper, we examined associations between internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and inflammation in adolescents with a history of severe psychosocial deprivation and children reared in typical family contexts. METHOD: The Bucharest Early Intervention Project is a longitudinal randomized trial of high-quality foster care as an alternative to institutional care. This report is based on 56 institutionalized children randomized to care as usual, 59 institutionalized children randomized to foster care, and 101 never institutionalized children who were recruited as an in-country comparison sample. Externalizing and internalizing behaviors were reported by parents and teachers at ages 8, 12, and 16. At age 16, C-reactive protein (CRP) was derived from blood spots in a subset of participants (n = 127). Multiple-group latent growth curve models were used to examine externalizing and internalizing trajectories and their associations with CRP. RESULTS: Among children assigned to care as usual, higher levels of externalizing behaviors at age 8, as well as smaller decreases in these behaviors from 8 to 16 years predicted higher levels of CRP at age 16. In the same group of children, higher internalizing behaviors at age 8, but not the rate of change in these behaviors, also predicted higher levels of CRP. In contrast, these relations were not observed in the children assigned to foster care and never institutionalized controls. CONCLUSIONS: Early institutional rearing is associated with a coupling of psychopathology and inflammation, whereas early placement into foster care buffers against these risks. These findings have implications for promoting healthy mental and physical development amongst institutionalized children.
Located in Retired Persons / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications