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Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Exposure to Particulate Matter and Adverse Birth Outcomes: A Comprehensive Review and Meta Analysis.
Increasing number of studies have investigated the impact of maternal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes, particularly low birth weight (LBW, <2,500 g at birth) and preterm birth (PTB, <37 completed weeks of gestation). We performed a comprehensive review of the peer-reviewed literature and a meta-analysis to quantify the association between maternal exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 2.5 and 10 μm (PM 2.5  and PM 10 ) during pregnancy and the risk of LBW and PTB. We identified 20 peer-reviewed articles providing quantitative estimate of exposure and outcome that met our selection criteria. There was significant heterogeneity between studies, particularly for findings related to PM 10  exposure (LBW,  I -squared 54%,  p  = 0.01; PTB,  I -squared = 73%,  p  < 0.01). Results from random-effect meta-analysis suggested a 9% increase in risk of LBW associated with a 10-μg/m 3  increase in PM 2.5  (combined odds ratios (OR), 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.90–1.32), but our 95% CI included the null value. We estimated a 15% increase in risk of PTB for each 10-μg/m 3  increase in PM 2.5  (combined OR, 1.15; CI, 1.14–1.16). The magnitude of risk associated with PM 10  exposure was smaller (2% per 10-μg/m 3  increase) and similar in size for both LBW and PTB, neither reaching formal statistical significance. We observed no significant publication bias, with  p  > 0.05 based on both Begg's and Egger's bias tests. Our results suggest that maternal exposure to PM, particularly PM 2.5  may have adverse effect on birth outcomes. Additional mechanistic studies are needed to understand the underlying mechanisms for this association.
Located in MPRC People / Amir Sapkota, Ph.D. / Amir Sapkota Publications
File Troff document (with manpage macros)Self-rated Health and Structural Racism Indicated by County-level Racial Inequalities in Socioeconomic Status: The Role of Urbanization
Caryn N. Bell University of Maryland: Jessica L. Owens-Young American University: 2019-005
Located in Research / Working Papers / WP Documents
File Troff document (with manpage macros)The role of weight perception in race differences in body mass index by education among women
Caryn N. Bell University of Maryland: Loneke T. Blackman Carr Duke University: 2019-006
Located in Research / Working Papers / WP Documents
Wade Jacobsen, UMD Criminology
Juvenile Arrest and Interpersonal Exclusion: Rejection, Withdrawal, and Homophily among Peers
Located in Coming Up
Structural Racism and Population Health: The Role of Race, Socioeconomic Status and Context
Caryn Bell, African American Studies, examines the effects of macro-level structural racism on population health
Located in Resources / / Seed Grant Program / Seed Grants Awarded
Population Health Trends among Hetrosexual and Sexual Minority Adults
Jessica N. Fish, Family Science, investigates sexual-orientation-related disparities in mental, behavioral, and physical health
Located in Resources / / Seed Grant Program / Seed Grants Awarded
Article ReferenceUtilizing Student Health and Academic Data: A County-Level Demonstration Project
Students with chronic health conditions miss more school days than their peers and are at increased risk for performing worse on standardized tests and not completing a high school degree. University-based researchers, state government leaders, and a local county school system collaborated to use existing health and academic data to (1) evaluate the strength of the relationship between health status and school performance (absenteeism, grades) and (2) describe the health status of students who are chronically absent. Analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, negative binomial regression models, and estimated marginal means. The most common health conditions among the 3,663 kindergarten through Grade 12 students were ADD (attention deficit disorder)/ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), asthma, migraine headaches, mental health conditions, and eczema/psoriasis/skin disorders. After controlling for covariates, having asthma or a mental health diagnosis was positively associated with absences; and having an ADD/ADHD or mental health diagnosis was negatively associated with GPA (grade point average). Chronically absent students had significantly lower GPAs, and a higher number of health conditions than other students. The success of this demonstration project encourages strengthening existing collaborations and establishing new multidisciplinary partnerships to analyze existing data sources to learn more about the relationship between student health and academic achievement. Moreover, connecting health status to academic achievement might be a chief tactic for advocating for additional resources to improve the care and management of chronic disease conditions among students.
Located in MPRC People / Olivia Denise Carter-Pokras, Ph.D. / Olivia Denise Carter-Pokras Publications
Steven Haas, Penn State University
The Long-Arm of Conflict: How Timing Shapes the Long-term Impacts of Childhood Exposure to War
Located in Coming Up
Amanda Geller, New York University
Police Contact, Mental Health, and Health Disparities among Urban Teens
Located in Coming Up
Michael White, Brown University
Migration, Urbanization, and Health: Insights from South Africa
Located in Coming Up