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Sexual minority youth less likely to exit foster care
Jessica Fish and her colleagues published a study presenting sexual minority youth as an overrepresented population in foster care, child welfare and out-of-home placement
Located in Research / Selected Research
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Sexual Minority Youth, Social Change, and Health: A Developmental Collision
Few societal attitudes and opinions have changed as quickly as those regarding sexual minority people and rights. In the context of dramatic social change, there have been multiple policy changes toward social inclusion and rights for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people, and perceptions that the sociocultural context for LGB people—perhaps particularly for youth—has improved. Yet recent evidence from the developmental sciences points to paradoxical findings: in many cases there have been growing rather than shrinking health disparities. The authors suggest that there is a developmental collision between normative adolescent developmental processes and sexual minority youth identities and visibility.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Sexual Orientation Disparities in Substance Use: Investigating Social Stress Mechanisms in a National Sample
Introduction: Sexual minorities are disproportionately more likely than heterosexuals to suffer from substance use disorders, but relatively little is known about differences in substance use disorders across diverse sexual minority subgroups. There is also limited understanding of how different social stressors account for sexual orientation disparities in substance use disorders. Methods: Using nationally representative data collected in 2012−2013 (n=34,597), differences in past-year DSM-5 alcohol, cannabis, and tobacco use disorders were assessed across 4 sexual orientation groups (heterosexuals and 3 sexual minority subgroups, lesbian/gay-, bisexual-, and heterosexual-identified sexual minorities). This study assessed whether stressful life events mediated substance use disorder disparities between heterosexuals and each sexual minority subgroup, and whether stressful life events and lesbian, gay, and bisexual discrimination events mediated these substance use disorder differences. Analyses were conducted in 2019. Results: For both men and women, substance use disorders and stress experiences varied by sexual identity. For example, compared with heterosexual men, larger proportions of gay and bisexual men had a past-year alcohol use disorder. Among women, all sexual minority subgroups had higher rates of each substance use disorder than heterosexuals. For each substance use disorder, stressful life events mediated disparities between heterosexuals and sexual minority subgroups, except for heterosexual-identified sexual minority men. Both stressful life events and lesbian, gay, and bisexual discrimination mediated substance use disorder differences between sexual minority subgroups, with stronger indirect effects through lesbian, gay, and bisexual discrimination for lesbians/gay men and stronger indirect effects through stressful life events for bisexual adults, generally. Conclusions: Sexual minority subgroups have a greater prevalence of substance use disorders, mediated through both stressful life events and lesbian, gay, and bisexual discrimination. More research is needed to comprehensively assess the processes underlying sexual orientation substance use disparities.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Article ReferenceSexual Orientation-Related Disparities in High-Intensity Binge Drinking: Findings from a Nationally Representative Sample
Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess sexual orientation differences in high-intensity binge drinking using nationally representative data. Methods: Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III (N = 36,309), a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults collected in 2012–2013. Sex-stratified adjusted logistic regression models were used to test sexual orientation differences in the prevalence of standard (4+ for women and 5+ for men) and high-intensity binge drinking (8+ and 12+ for women; 10+ and 15+ for men) across three dimensions of sexual orientation: sexual attraction, sexual behavior, and sexual identity. Results: Sexual minority women, whether defined on the basis of sexual attraction, behavior, or identity, were more likely than sexual majority women to engage in high-intensity binge drinking at two (adjusted odds ratios [aORs] ranging from 1.52 to 2.90) and three (aORs ranging from 1.61 to 3.27) times the standard cutoff for women (4+). Sexual minority men, depending on sexual orientation dimension, were equally or less likely than sexual majority men to engage in high-intensity binge drinking. Conclusion: This study is the first to document sexual orientation-related disparities in high-intensity binge drinking among adults in the United States using nationally representative data. The results suggest that differences in alcohol-related risk among sexual minority individuals vary depending on sex and sexual orientation dimension.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Shareen Joshi, Georgetown University
Just Water? Environmental Jurisprudence, Water Quality and Infant Mortality in India
Located in Coming Up
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Sleep debt: the impact of weekday sleep deprivation on cardiovascular health in older women
STUDY OBJECTIVES:Short sleep duration is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, it is uncertain whether sleep debt, a measure of sleep deficiency during the week compared to the weekend, confers increased cardiovascular risk. Because sleep disturbances increase with age particularly in women, we examined the relationship between sleep debt and ideal cardiovascular health (ICH) in older women. METHODS:Sleep debt is defined as the difference between self-reported total weekday and weekend sleep hours of at least 2 hours among women without apparent CVD and cancer participating in the Women's Health Stress Study follow-up cohort of female health professionals (N = 22 082). The ICH consisted of seven health factors and behaviors as defined by the American Heart Association Strategic 2020 goals including body mass index, smoking, physical activity, diet, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and glucose. RESULTS:Mean age was 72.1 ± 6.0 years. Compared to women with no sleep debt, women with sleep debt were more likely to be obese and have hypertension (pall < .05). Linear regression models adjusted for age and race/ethnicity revealed that sleep debt was significantly associated with poorer ICH (B = -0.13 [95% CI = -0.18 to -0.08]). The relationship was attenuated but remained significant after adjustment for education, income, depression/anxiety, cumulative stress, and snoring. CONCLUSION:Sleep debt was associated with poorer ICH, despite taking into account socioeconomic status and psychosocial factors. These results suggest that weekly sleep duration variation, possibly leading to circadian misalignment, may be associated with cardiovascular risk in older women.  https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsz149
Located in Retired Persons / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Social Determinants of Cardiovascular Health: Early Life Adversity as a Contributor to Disparities in Cardiovascular Diseases
Social determinants of health (SDoH), factors related to the conditions in which people are born, live, work, play, age, and the systems that shape the conditions of daily life, have emerged as key drivers of health and health disparities. 1 , 2  A strong body of research supports that SDoH are associated with cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes, independently or in conjunction with more traditionally recognized risk factors. As a result, efforts to improve cardiovascular health are predicated on improved understanding of the impact of SDoH on cardiovascular disease (CVD) over the life course.
Located in Retired Persons / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Social Influences on Drinking Trajectories From Adolescence to Young Adulthood in an Urban Minority Sample
OBJECTIVE: Research on the heterogeneity in drinking patterns of urban minorities within a socioecological framework is rare. The purpose of this study was to explore multiple, distinct patterns of drinking from adolescence to young adulthood in a sample of urban minority youth and to examine the influence of neighborhood, family, and peers on these trajectories. METHOD: Data are from a longitudinal study of 584 (56% male) primarily Black (87%) youth who were first sampled in childhood based on their residence in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore City and followed up annually through age 26. Data were analyzed using group-based trajectory modeling and multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: Modeling revealed six trajectories from ages 14 to 26: abstainer, experimenter, adult increasing, young adult increasing, adolescent limited, and adolescent increasing. Neighborhood disadvantage was a risk factor for drinking regardless of the timing of onset. Perceptions of availability, peer drinking, and parental approval for drinking were risk factors for underage drinking trajectories, whereas parental supervision was a significant protective factor. Positive social activities in neighborhoods was protective against increased drinking, whereas a decline in perceptions of peer drinking was associated with adolescent-limited drinking. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings uniquely highlight the importance of developing interventions involving parents for urban minority youth for whom family is particularly relevant in deterring underage drinking. Perhaps most importantly, our data suggest that interventions that support positive social activities in disadvantaged neighborhoods are protective against adolescent drinking and altering perceptions of peer drinking may reduce adolescent drinking among low-income, urban minority youth.
Located in MPRC People / Kerry Green, Ph.D. / Kerry Green Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Social media captures demographic and regional physicalactivity
Objectives: We examined the use of data from social media for surveillance of physical activity prevalence in the USA. Methods: We obtained data from the social media site Twitter from April 2015 to March 2016. The data consisted of 1382 284 geotagged physical activity tweets from 481146 users (55.7% men and 44.3% women) in more than 2900 counties. We applied machine learning and statistical modelling to demonstrate sex and regional variations in preferred exercises, and assessed the association between reports of physical activity on Twitter and population-level inactivity prevalence from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: The association between physical inactivity tweet patterns and physical activity prevalence varied by sex and region. Walking was the most popular physical activity for both men and women across all regions (15.94% (95% CI 15.85% to 16.02%) and 18.74% (95% CI 18.64% to 18.88%) of tweets, respectively). Men and women mentioned performing gym-based activities at approximately the same rates (4.68% (95% CI 4.63% to 4.72%) and 4.13% (95% CI 4.08% to 4.18%) of tweets, respectively). CrossFit was most popular among men (14.91% (95% CI 14.52% to 15.31%)) among gym-based tweets, whereas yoga was most popular among women (26.66% (95% CI 26.03% to 27.19%)). Men mentioned engaging in higher intensity activities than women. Overall, counties with higher physical activity tweets also had lower leisure-time physical inactivity prevalence for both sexes. Conclusions: The regional-specific and sex-specific activity patterns captured on Twitter may allow public health officials to identify changes in health behaviours at small geographical scales and to design interventions best suited for specific populations.
Located in MPRC People / Quynh Nguyen, Ph.D., M.S.P.H. / Quynh Nguyen Publications
Sonalde Desai featured in The Indian Express on Social Distancing Practice during COVID-19 Lockdown in India
Telephone survey shows high understanding of social distancing, support for lockdown
Located in News