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Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Risk and protective factors associated with BV chronicity among women in Rakai, Uganda
Objectives To assess risk and protective factors associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) chronicity ascertained by Nugent score criteria. Methods A longitudinal cohort study included 255 sexually experienced, postmenarcheal women who provided weekly self-collected vaginal swabs for up to 2 years. Vaginal swabs were scored using Nugent criteria and classified as normal (≤3), intermediate (4–6) and Nugent-BV (≥7). Detailed behavioural/health information were assessed every 6 months. A per-woman longitudinal summary measure of BV chronicity was defined as the percentage of each woman’s weekly vaginal assessments scored as Nugent-BV over a 6-month interval. Risk and protective factors associated with BV chronicity were assessed using multiple linear regression with generalised estimating equations. Results Average BV chronicity was 39% across all follow-up periods. After adjustment, factors associated with BV chronicity included baseline Nugent-BV (β=35.3, 95% CI 28.6 to 42.0) compared with normal baseline Nugent scores and use of unprotected water for bathing (ie, rainwater, pond, lake/stream) (β=12.0, 95% CI 3.4 to 20.5) compared with protected water sources (ie, well, tap, borehole). Women had fewer BV occurrences if they were currently pregnant (β=−6.6, 95% CI −12.1 to 1.1), reported consistent condom use (β=−7.7, 95% CI −14.2 to 1.3) or their partner was circumcised (β=−5.8, 95% CI −11.3 to 0.3). Conclusions Factors associated with higher and lower values of BV chronicity were multifactorial. Notably, higher values of BV chronicity were associated with potentially contaminated bathing water. Future studies should examine the role of waterborne microbial agents in the pathogenesis of BV.
Located in MPRC People / Marie Thoma, Ph.D. / Marie Thoma Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Sexual and Gender Minority Youth Alcohol Use: Within-Group Differences in Associations with Internalized Stigma and Victimization
Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth are more likely to use alcohol than their heterosexual cisgender peers. At the same time, SGM youth experience sexuality- and gender identity-specific stressors known to exacerbate negative health outcomes. Though scholars have established a link between minority stressors (e.g., internalized stigma and victimization) and increased alcohol use for SGM youth as a whole, there is little indication of whether internalized stigma and victimization are more strongly associated with alcohol use for specific groups of SGM youth. A United States sample of 11,811 racially and geographically diverse 13–17 year old SGM youth was used to employ a series of gender-stratified multivariable regression models to examine the association among internalized stigma, victimization, and alcohol-related behaviors, and whether they differed for specific groups of sexual minority youth. Sexual orientation moderated several associations between sexual minority stressors (i.e., victimization and stigma) and youth’s alcohol use (i.e., recent use and heavy episodic drinking) across models stratified by gender (i.e., male, female, and non-binary). For example, bisexual boys had stronger associations between SGM-specific victimization and alcohol use frequency and heavy episodic drinking relative to gay boys; conversely, victimization and alcohol use frequency were more weakly associated among bisexual girls relative to lesbian/gay girls. Pansexual girls showed weaker associations between internalized stigma and alcohol use frequency compared to lesbian/gay girls. This paper demonstrates who among SGM youth are more likely to engage in alcohol-related behaviors as a function of differential forms of SGM-related victimization and stigma. These findings can inform substance use interventions that are tailored to youth of diverse sexual orientations and gender identities.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Sexual Minority Health Disparities: An Examination of Age-Related Trends Across Adulthood In a National Cross-Sectional Sample
Purpose:  Sexual minorities experience signi fi cant health disparities across a variety of mental, behav ioral, and physical health indicators. Yet, an understanding of the etiology and progression of sexual minority health disparities across the lifespan is limited. Methods:  We used the U.S. National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions III to  evaluate the association between sexual minority status and seven past-year health outcomes (alcohol  use disorder, tobacco use disorder, drug use disorder, major depressive episode, generalized anxiety  disorder, sexually transmitted infection, and cardiovascular conditions). To do this, we used unadjusted  and adjusted logistic regression among our study sample (n ¼ 30,999; aged 18 e 65 years) and time- varying effect models to evaluate how sexual orientation differences in these outcomes vary across  adulthood. Results:  Relative to heterosexuals, sexual minorities had elevated odds of past-year alcohol use disorder  and drug use disorder across all ages (18 e 65 years) although the magnitude of the disparity varies by  age. Sexual minorities were also more likely to experience major depressive episode, generalized anxiety  disorder, tobacco use disorder, sexually transmitted infection, and cardiovascular disease, but only at  speci fi c ages. Conclusions:  Sexual minority health disparities vary appreciably across the adult lifespan, thus eluci dating critical periods for focused prevention efforts.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Sexual Minority Youth, Social Change, and Health: A Developmental Collision
Few societal attitudes and opinions have changed as quickly as those regarding sexual minority people and rights. In the context of dramatic social change, there have been multiple policy changes toward social inclusion and rights for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people, and perceptions that the sociocultural context for LGB people—perhaps particularly for youth—has improved. Yet recent evidence from the developmental sciences points to paradoxical findings: in many cases there have been growing rather than shrinking health disparities. The authors suggest that there is a developmental collision between normative adolescent developmental processes and sexual minority youth identities and visibility.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Sexual Minority-related Discrimination across the Life Course: Findings from a National Sample of Adults in the United States
In the United States, sexual minority (SM) status is associated with a number of health disparities. Based on mounting evidence, stigma and discrimination have been cited as key barriers to health equity for this population. We estimated the prevalence of three types of discrimination as a function of age among SM adults from the National Epidemiological Study of Alcohol Use and Related Conditions III (NESARC-III) (2012–2013). Among SM adults, reports of past-year general discrimination, victimization, and healthcare discrimination varied by age, with peaks in early adulthood and again in midlife. Age trends varied by biological sex, with males experiencing significantly more general discrimination, victimization, and healthcare discrimination at specific ages. Age trends also varied by sexual identity, as LGB-identifying SMs were significantly more likely to experience all forms of discrimination across all ages. Policies preventing homophobic discrimination and victimization are necessary given the pervasiveness of these experiences across adulthood.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Article ReferenceSexual Orientation-Related Disparities in High-Intensity Binge Drinking: Findings from a Nationally Representative Sample
Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess sexual orientation differences in high-intensity binge drinking using nationally representative data. Methods: Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III (N = 36,309), a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults collected in 2012–2013. Sex-stratified adjusted logistic regression models were used to test sexual orientation differences in the prevalence of standard (4+ for women and 5+ for men) and high-intensity binge drinking (8+ and 12+ for women; 10+ and 15+ for men) across three dimensions of sexual orientation: sexual attraction, sexual behavior, and sexual identity. Results: Sexual minority women, whether defined on the basis of sexual attraction, behavior, or identity, were more likely than sexual majority women to engage in high-intensity binge drinking at two (adjusted odds ratios [aORs] ranging from 1.52 to 2.90) and three (aORs ranging from 1.61 to 3.27) times the standard cutoff for women (4+). Sexual minority men, depending on sexual orientation dimension, were equally or less likely than sexual majority men to engage in high-intensity binge drinking. Conclusion: This study is the first to document sexual orientation-related disparities in high-intensity binge drinking among adults in the United States using nationally representative data. The results suggest that differences in alcohol-related risk among sexual minority individuals vary depending on sex and sexual orientation dimension.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Article ReferenceTeen Mothers’ Family Support and Adult Identity in the Emerging Adulthood: Implications for Socioeconomic Attainment Later in Life
We examined the prospective role of parental support and adult identity profiles in the transition to adulthood on teen mothers’ socioeconomic outcomes in adulthood. Analyses were based on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a nationally representative sample of youth followed over a decade. We used data from Waves 1, 3, and 4 (mean age = 28.6, Wave 4). Analytical sample consisted of 981 females who gave birth before age 20. Analysis included design-based regression models. Findings from adjusted regression models showed no statistically significant associations between teen mothers’ parental support and socioeconomic outcomes. While teen mothers have already achieved an important marker of adulthood, variability in adult identity profiles was observed. Teen mothers with older subjective age, regardless of their levels of psychosocial maturation, had higher socioeconomic attainment on some indicators. Findings suggest that teen mothers’ adult identity profiles differentiate their socioeconomic trajectories later in life.
Located in MPRC People / Kerry Green, Ph.D. / Kerry Green Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)The association between interpregnancy interval and severe maternal morbidities using revised national birth certificate data: A probabilistic bias analysis
Severe maternal morbidity continues to be on the rise in the US. Short birth spacing is a modifiable risk factor associated with maternal morbidity, yet few studies have examined this association, possibly due to few available data sources to examine these rare events. To examine the association between interpregnancy interval (IPI) and severe maternal morbidity using near‐national birth certificate data and account for known under‐reporting using probabilistic bias analysis. We used revised 2014‐2017 birth certificate data, restricting to resident women with a non–first‐born singleton birth. We examined the following: (a) maternal blood transfusion, (b) admission to intensive care unit (ICU), (c) uterine rupture (among women with a prior caesarean delivery) and (d) third‐ or fourth‐degree perineal laceration (among vaginal deliveries) by IPI categories (<6, 6‐11, 12‐17, 18‐23, 24‐59 and 60+ months). Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using log‐binomial regression, adjusting for select maternal characteristics. Probabilistic bias analyses were performed. Compared with IPI 18 to 23 months, adjusted models revealed that the risk of maternal transfusion followed a U‐shaped curve with IPI, while risk of ICU admission and perineal laceration increased with longer IPI. Risk of uterine rupture was highest among IPI <6 months. With the exception of maternal transfusion, these findings persisted regardless of the extent or type of misclassification examined in bias analyses. Associations between IPI and maternal morbidity varied by outcome, even after adjusting for misclassification of SMM. Differences across maternal health outcomes should be considered when counselling and making recommendations regarding optimal birth spacing.
Located in MPRC People / Marie Thoma, Ph.D. / Marie Thoma Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)The Economic Gap Among Women in Time Spent on Housework in Former West Germany and Sweden
The quantitative scholarship on domestic labor has documented the existence of a gender gap in its performance in all countries for which data are available. Only recently have researchers begun to analyze economic disparities  among  women in their time spent doing housework, and their studies have been largely limited to the U.S. We extend this line of inquiry using data from two European countries, the former West Germany and Sweden. We estimate the “economic gap” in women’s housework time, which we define as the difference between the time spent by women at the lowest and highest deciles of their own earnings. We expect this gap to be smaller in Sweden given its celebrated success at reducing both gender and income inequality. Though Swedish women do spend less time on domestic labor, however, and though there is indeed less earnings inequality among them, the economic gap in their housework is only a little smaller than among women in the former West Germany. In both places, a significant negative association between women’s individual earnings and their housework time translates into economic gaps of more than 2.5 hours per week. Moreover, in both countries, women at the highest earnings decile experience a gender gap in housework that is smaller by about 4 hours per week compared to their counterparts at the lowest decile.
Located in MPRC People / Liana C. Sayer, Ph.D. / Liana Sayer Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)The Impact of Community Size, Community Climate, and Victimization on the Physical and Mental Health of SGM Youth
Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth experience high rates of victimization leading to health disparities. Community size and community climate are associated with health outcomes among SGM youth; however, we lack studies that include them as covariates alongside victimization to understand their collective impact on health. This study utilized minority stress theory to understand how community context shapes experiences of victimization and health among SGM youth. SGM youth in one Midwestern U.S. state completed an online survey ( n = 201) with measures of physical health, mental health, community context, and victimization. Data were analyzed via multiple regression using a path analysis framework. Results indicate that perceived climate was associated with mental, but not physical, health; Community size was unrelated to health outcomes. Victimization mediated the association between community climate and mental health. Findings are discussed in light of current literature and implications for research and practice are shared.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications