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Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Using Google Street View to examine associations between built environment characteristics and U.S. health outcomes
Neighborhood attributes have been shown to influence health, but advances in neighborhood research has been constrained by the lack of neighborhood data for many geographical areas and few neighborhood studies examine features of nonmetropolitan locations. We leveraged a massive source of Google Street View (GSV) images and computer vision to automatically characterize national neighborhood built environments. Using road network data and Google Street View API, from December 15, 2017-May 14, 2018 we retrieved over 16 million GSV images of street intersections across the United States. Computer vision was applied to label each image. We implemented regression models to estimate associations between built environments and county  health outcomes , controlling for county-level demographics, economics, and  population density . At the county level, greater presence of highways was related to lower chronic diseases and  premature mortality . Areas characterized by street view images as ‘rural’ (having limited infrastructure) had higher obesity,  diabetes , fair/poor self-rated health, premature mortality, physical distress, physical inactivity and teen birth rates but lower rates of excessive drinking. Analyses at the  census  tract level for 500 cities revealed similar adverse associations as was seen at the county level for neighborhood indicators of less urban development. Possible mechanisms include the greater abundance of services and facilities found in more developed areas with roads, enabling access to places and resources for promoting health. GSV images represents an underutilized resource for building national data on neighborhoods and examining the influence of built environments on community health outcomes across the United States.
Located in MPRC People / Quynh Nguyen, Ph.D., M.S.P.H. / Quynh Nguyen Publications
Using IHDS Data to Explore Inequality in India
Sonalde Desai and Reeve Vanneman study the "Determinants of Maternal and Child Health in India"
Located in Research / Selected Research
Using New Policy Parameter to Study Early Childhood Intervention for Low Birth-weight Infants
Erich Battistin examines a relatively understudied early-childhood intervention for low birth-weight infants using new policy parameter
Located in Research / Selected Research
Using propensity scores for causal inference with covariate measurement error
Faculty Associate Frauke Kreuter's project, an R01 funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, seeks to develop and assess new statistical methods
Located in Research / Selected Research
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Utilization of essential preventive health services among Asians after the implementation of the preventive services provisions of the Affordable Care Act
Utilization of cost-effective essential preventive health services increased after the implementation of the Affordable Care Act’s (ACA) provision that non-grandfathered private insurers provide cost-effective preventive services without cost sharing in 2010. Little is known, however, whether this change is also observed among Asians in the US. We examined patterns of preventive services utilization among Asian subgroups relative to non-Latino whites (whites) after the implementation of the ACA’s preventive services provisions. Using 2013–2016 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data, we examined utilization trends in preventive services among Asian Indians, Chinese, Filipinos, and other Asians relative to whites. We also ran logistic regression models to estimate the likelihood of having received each of the seven essential preventive services (routine checkups, flu vaccinations, cholesterol screenings, blood pressure checkups, Papanicolaou “pap” tests, mammograms, and colorectal cancer screenings). Compared to whites, Asians had higher rates of utilization of routine checkups, cholesterol screenings, and flu vaccinations, but they had lower utilization rates of blood pressure checkups, pap tests, and mammograms. The patterns of preventive services utilization differed across the Asian subgroups. All Asian subgroups, except for Filipinos, were less likely to have pap tests or mammograms than whites. Moreover, we observed a decreasing trend in having pap tests, mammograms, or colorectal cancer screenings among all Asian subgroups between 2013 and 2016. Our findings suggest that there are low cancer screening rates across Asian subgroups. This indicates the need for programs tailored to specific Asian subgroups to improve cancer screening.
Located in MPRC People / Jie Chen, Ph.D. / Jie Chen Publications
Article ReferenceUtilizing Student Health and Academic Data: A County-Level Demonstration Project
Students with chronic health conditions miss more school days than their peers and are at increased risk for performing worse on standardized tests and not completing a high school degree. University-based researchers, state government leaders, and a local county school system collaborated to use existing health and academic data to (1) evaluate the strength of the relationship between health status and school performance (absenteeism, grades) and (2) describe the health status of students who are chronically absent. Analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, negative binomial regression models, and estimated marginal means. The most common health conditions among the 3,663 kindergarten through Grade 12 students were ADD (attention deficit disorder)/ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), asthma, migraine headaches, mental health conditions, and eczema/psoriasis/skin disorders. After controlling for covariates, having asthma or a mental health diagnosis was positively associated with absences; and having an ADD/ADHD or mental health diagnosis was negatively associated with GPA (grade point average). Chronically absent students had significantly lower GPAs, and a higher number of health conditions than other students. The success of this demonstration project encourages strengthening existing collaborations and establishing new multidisciplinary partnerships to analyze existing data sources to learn more about the relationship between student health and academic achievement. Moreover, connecting health status to academic achievement might be a chief tactic for advocating for additional resources to improve the care and management of chronic disease conditions among students.
Located in MPRC People / Olivia Denise Carter-Pokras, Ph.D. / Olivia Denise Carter-Pokras Publications
Vivian Hoffman studies women's sanitation impact in developing countries
Environmental and social impacts for women deriving from menstrual sanitation practices
Located in Research / Selected Research
Wade Jacobsen, UMD Criminology
Juvenile Arrest and Interpersonal Exclusion: Rejection, Withdrawal, and Homophily among Peers
Located in Coming Up
Wendy Manning, Bowling Green State University
Continuity and Change in Verbal Conflict and Intimate Partner Violence During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Prospective Analysis of Adults
Located in Coming Up
Who are the happiest Americans ?
Faculty Associate John Robinson tracks trends from 1965 to 2010
Located in News