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Sacoby Wilson comments on Social Factors of COVID-19 Pandemic Impacts on Prince Georgian's Health on Capital Gazette
In Maryland and across the nation, black people are becoming ill and dying at disproportionate rates because of the coronavirus pandemic.
Located in News
Maureen Cropper talks about Clean Air Act on Resources for the Future
Cropper discusses a recent working paper that assesses the full benefits and costs of the groundbreaking law’s many programs to protect the environment.
Located in News
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Long-term exposure to particulate air pollution and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in the Old Order Amish
Background Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has been associated with endothelial dysfunction, an early marker of cardiovascular risk. Our aim was to extend this research to a genetically homogenous, geographically stable rural population using location-specific moving-average air pollution exposure estimates indexed to the date of endothelial function measurement. Methods We measured endothelial function using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in 615 community-dwelling healthy Amish participants. Exposures to PM < 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) and PM < 10 μm (PM 10 ) were estimated at participants’ residential addresses using previously developed geographic information system-based spatio-temporal models and normalized. Associations between PM exposures and FMD were evaluated using linear mixed-effects regression models, and polynomial distributed lag (PDL) models followed by Bayesian model averaging (BMA) were used to assess response to delayed effects occurring across multiple months. Results Exposure to PM 10  was consistently inversely associated with FMD, with the strongest (most negative) association for a 12-month moving average (− 0.09; 95% CI: − 0.15, − 0.03). Associations with PM 2.5  were also strongest for a 12-month moving average but were weaker than for PM 10  (− 0.07; 95% CI: − 0.13, − 0.09). Associations of PM 2.5  and PM 10  with FMD were somewhat stronger in men than in women, particularly for PM 10 . Conclusions Using location-specific moving-average air pollution exposure estimates, we have shown that 12-month moving-average estimates of PM 2.5  and PM 10  exposure are associated with impaired endothelial function in a rural population.
Located in MPRC People / Robin Puett, Ph.D. / Robin Puett Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Exposure to Particulate Matter and Adverse Birth Outcomes: A Comprehensive Review and Meta Analysis.
Increasing number of studies have investigated the impact of maternal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes, particularly low birth weight (LBW, <2,500 g at birth) and preterm birth (PTB, <37 completed weeks of gestation). We performed a comprehensive review of the peer-reviewed literature and a meta-analysis to quantify the association between maternal exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 2.5 and 10 μm (PM 2.5  and PM 10 ) during pregnancy and the risk of LBW and PTB. We identified 20 peer-reviewed articles providing quantitative estimate of exposure and outcome that met our selection criteria. There was significant heterogeneity between studies, particularly for findings related to PM 10  exposure (LBW,  I -squared 54%,  p  = 0.01; PTB,  I -squared = 73%,  p  < 0.01). Results from random-effect meta-analysis suggested a 9% increase in risk of LBW associated with a 10-μg/m 3  increase in PM 2.5  (combined odds ratios (OR), 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.90–1.32), but our 95% CI included the null value. We estimated a 15% increase in risk of PTB for each 10-μg/m 3  increase in PM 2.5  (combined OR, 1.15; CI, 1.14–1.16). The magnitude of risk associated with PM 10  exposure was smaller (2% per 10-μg/m 3  increase) and similar in size for both LBW and PTB, neither reaching formal statistical significance. We observed no significant publication bias, with  p  > 0.05 based on both Begg's and Egger's bias tests. Our results suggest that maternal exposure to PM, particularly PM 2.5  may have adverse effect on birth outcomes. Additional mechanistic studies are needed to understand the underlying mechanisms for this association.
Located in MPRC People / Amir Sapkota, Ph.D. / Amir Sapkota Publications