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Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Perceived stress and incident sexually transmitted infections in a prospective cohort
Purpose Psychosocial stress has been associated with susceptibility to many infectious pathogens. We evaluated the association between perceived stress and incident sexually transmitted infections (STIs;  Chlamydia trachomatis ,  Neisseria gonorrhoeae , and  Trichomonas vaginalis  genital infections) in a prospective study of women. Stress may increase vulnerability to STIs by suppressing immune function and altering the protective vaginal microbiota. Methods Using the 1999 Longitudinal Study of Vaginal Flora (n  = 2439), a primarily African American cohort of women, we fitted Cox proportional hazards models to examine the association between perceived stress and incident STIs. We tested  bacterial vaginosis  (measured by Nugent Score) and sexual behaviors (condom use, number of partners, and partner concurrence) as mediators using VanderWeele's difference method. Results Baseline perceived stress was associated with incident STIs both before and after adjusting for confounders (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.015; 95% confidence interval, 1.005–1.026). Nugent score and sexual behaviors significantly mediated 21% and 65% of this adjusted association, respectively, and 78% when included together in the adjusted model. Conclusions This study advances understanding of the relationship between perceived stress and STIs and identifies high-risk sexual behaviors and development of bacterial vaginosis—both known risk factors for STIs—as mechanisms underlying this association.
Located in Retired Persons / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Cumulative Psychosocial Stress and Ideal Cardiovascular Health in Older Women: Data by Race/Ethnicity
  BACKGROUND: Research implicates acute and chronic stressors in racial/ethnic health disparities, but the joint impact of multiple stressors on racial/ethnic disparities in cardiovascular health is unknown. METHODS: In 25 062 women (24 053 white; 256 Hispanic; 440 black; 313 Asian) articipating in the Women's Health Study follow-up cohort, we examined the relationship between cumulative psychosocial stress (CPS) and ideal cardiovascular health (ICH), as defined by the American Heart Association's 2020 strategic Impact Goals. This health metric includes smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and glucose, with higher levels indicating more ICH and less cardiovascular risk (score range, 0-7). We created a CPS score that summarized acute stressors (eg, negative life events) and chronic stressors (eg, work, work-family spillover, financial, discrimination, relationship, and neighborhood) and traumatic life event stress reported on a stress questionnaire administered in 2012 to 2013 (score range, 16-385, with higher scores indicating higher levels of stress). RESULTS: White women had the lowest mean CPS scores (white: 161.7±50.4; Hispanic: 171.2±51.7; black: 172.5±54.9; Asian: 170.8±50.6; P overall <0.01). Mean CPS scores remained higher in Hispanic, black, and Asian women than in white women after adjustment for age, socioeconomic status (income and education), and psychological status (depression and anxiety) ( P<0.01 for each). Mean ICH scores varied by race/ethnicity ( P<0.01) and were significantly lower in black women and higher in Asian women compared with white women (β-coefficient [95% CI]: Hispanics, -0.02 [-0.13 to -0.09]; blacks, -0.34 [-0.43 to -0.25]; Asians, 0.34 [0.24 to 0.45]); control for socioeconomic status and CPS did not change these results. Interactions between CPS and race/ethnicity in ICH models were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Both CPS and ICH varied by race/ethnicity. ICH remained worse in blacks and better in Asians compared with whites, despite taking into account socioeconomic factors and CPS.
Located in Retired Persons / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Trajectories of childhood adversity and the risk of depression in young adulthood: Results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children
  BACKGROUND: The significance of the timing and chronicity of childhood adversity for depression outcomes later in life is unclear. Identifying trajectories of adversity throughout childhood would allow classification of children according to the accumulation, timing, and persistence of adversity, and may provide unique insights into the risk of subsequent depression. METHODS: Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we created a composite adversity score comprised of 10 prospectively assessed domains (e.g., violent victimization, inter-parental conflict, and financial hardship) for each of eight time points from birth through age 11.5 years. We used semiparametric group-based trajectory modeling to derive childhood adversity trajectories and examined the association between childhood adversity and depression outcomes at the age of 18 years. RESULTS: Among 9,665 participants, five adversity trajectories were identified, representing stable-low levels (46.3%), stable-mild levels (37.1%), decreasing levels (8.9%), increasing levels (5.3%), and stable-high levels of adversity (2.5%) from birth through late childhood. Approximately 8% of the sample met criteria for probable depression at 18 years and the mean depression severity score was 3.20 (standard deviation = 3.95, range 0-21). The risk of depression in young adulthood was elevated in the decreasing (odds ratio [OR] = 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19-2.48), increasing (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.15-2.86), and stable-high (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.00-3.23) adversity groups, compared to those with stable-low adversity, when adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Children in trajectory groups characterized by moderate or high levels of adversity at some point in childhood exhibited consistently greater depression risk and depression severity, regardless of the timing of adversity.
Located in Retired Persons / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Maternal experiences of ethnic discrimination and child cardiometabolic outcomes in the Study of Latino (SOL) Youth
Purpose Limited research has examined maternal experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination in relation to child cardiometabolic health. In this study, we investigated whether maternal experiences of ethnic discrimination were associated with cardiometabolic risk in Hispanic/Latino youth several years later. Methods Our sample included 1146 youth (8–16 years) from the Study of Latino Youth (2012–2014), who were children of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos participants (2008–2011). We used regression models to examine the prospective associations between maternal report of ethnic discrimination in relation to her child's  body mass index  (BMI) z-score,  metabolic syndrome  score (MetS), and high sensitivity  C-reactive protein  (hsCRP) levels 2 years later. Results Maternal ethnic discrimination was associated with youth hsCRP, but not BMI or MetS (P -values >.05). Adjusting for age, nativity, and national background, maternal ethnic discrimination was associated with higher (log) hsCRP levels (β = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.04 to 0.32) in children. This association was robust to adjustment for maternal and household characteristics (β = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.04 to 0.31), as well as  maternal depression  and maternal BMI. Conclusions Maternal ethnic discrimination is associated with inflammation among Hispanic/Latino youth, and not BMI z-score or MetS. Studies are needed to address temporality and pathways.
Located in Retired Persons / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications
Article ReferencePsychosocial Stress and Overweight and Obesity: Findings From the Chicago Community Adult Health Study
  Background Psychosocial stress has been implicated as a risk factor for overweight and obesity. However, research on psychosocial stressors and overweight and obesity has typically focused on single stressors in isolation, which may overestimate the impact of a specific stressor and fail to describe the role of cumulative stress on overweight and obesity risk. Purpose This study explores the association between overweight/obesity and cumulative exposure to a wide range of psychosocial stressors, among a multiracial/ethnic sample of adults. Methods Using secondary data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (n = 2,983), we conducted multinomial logistic regression analyses to quantify associations between eight psychosocial stressors, individually and in combination, and measured overweight and obesity, adjusted for sociodemographic factors, alcohol use and smoking. Results In separated covariate-adjusted models, childhood adversities (odds ratio [OR] = 1.16; confidence interval [CI] = [1.03, 1.30]), acute life events (OR = 1.18; CI = [1.04, 1.34]), financial strain (OR = 1.30; CI = [1.15, 1.47]), and relationship stressors (OR = 1.18; CI = [1.04, 1.35]) were associated with increased odds of obesity. In a model adjusted for all stressors simultaneously, financial strain was the only stressor independently associated with overweight (OR = 1.17; CI = [1.00, 1.36]) and obesity (OR = 1.21; CI = [1.05, 1.39]). Participants with stress exposure in the highest quintile across 2, 3, or ≥4 (compared to no) types of stressors had significantly higher odds of obesity. Conclusions Multiple types of stressors may be risk factors for obesity, and cumulative exposure to these stressors may increase the odds of obesity. Reducing exposure to stressors at the population level may have the potential to contribute to reducing the burden of obesity.  
Located in Retired Persons / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)The consequences of foster care versus institutional care in early childhood on adolescent cardiometabolic and immune markers: Results from a randomized controlled trial
OBJECTIVE: Children exposed to institutional rearing often exhibit problems across a broad array of developmental domains. We compared the consequences of long-term, high-quality foster care versus standard institution-based care, which began in early childhood on cardiometabolic and immune markers assessed at the time of adolescence. METHODS: The Bucharest Early Intervention Project is a longitudinal investigation of children institutionalized during early childhood (ages 6 to 30 months at baseline) who were subsequently randomized to either high-quality foster care or continued institutional care. At the age of 16 years, 127 respondents participated in a biomarker collection protocol, including 44 institutionalized children randomly assigned to receive care as usual, 41 institutionalized children randomized to be removed from institutional care and placed in high-quality foster care in infancy, and a control group of 42 demographically matched children raised in biological families. Outcomes included body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor α, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, and Epstein-Barr virus antibody titers. RESULTS: Early institutional rearing was not associated with differences in cardiometabolic or immune markers. Randomization to foster care and age of placement into foster care were also unrelated to these markers, with the exception of BMI z-score, where children assigned to care as usual had lower BMI z-scores relative to children assigned to foster care (-0.23 versus 0.08, p = .06), and older age at placement was associated with lower BMI (β = -0.07, p = .03). CONCLUSIONS: The impact of institutional rearing on measures of cardiometabolic health and immune system functioning is either absent or not evident until later in development. These findings provide new insights into the biological embedding of adversity and how it varies developmentally and across regulatory systems and adversity type.
Located in Retired Persons / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Financial strain and ideal cardiovascular health in middle-aged and older women: Data from the Women's health study
Financial strain is a prevalent form of psychosocial stress in the United States; however, information about the relationship between financial strain and cardiovascular health remains sparse, particularly in older women. The cross-sectional association between financial strain and ideal cardiovascular health were examined in the Women's Health Study follow-up cohort (N = 22,048; mean age = 72± 6.0 years).Six self-reported measures of financial strain were summed together to create a financial strain index and categorized into 4 groups: No financial strain, 1 stressor, 2 stressors, and 3+ stressors. Ideal cardiovascular health was based on the American Heart Association strategic 2020 goals metric, including tobacco use, body mass index, physical activity, diet, blood pressure, total cholesterol and diabetes mellitus. Cardiovascular health was examined as continuous and a categorical outcome (ideal, intermediate, and poor). Statistical analyses adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education and income. At least one indicator of financial strain was reported by 16% of participants. Number of financial stressors was associated with lower ideal cardiovascular health, and this association persisted after adjustment for potential confounders (1 financial stressor (FS): B = −0.10, 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) = −0.13, −0.07; 2 FS: B = −0.20, 95% CI = −0.26, −0.15; 3+ FS: B = −0.44, 95% CI = −0.50, −0.38). Financial strain was associated with lower ideal cardiovascular health in middle aged and older female health professional women. The results of this study have implications for the potential cardiovascular health benefit of financial protections for older individuals.
Located in Retired Persons / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Sleep debt: the impact of weekday sleep deprivation on cardiovascular health in older women
STUDY OBJECTIVES:Short sleep duration is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, it is uncertain whether sleep debt, a measure of sleep deficiency during the week compared to the weekend, confers increased cardiovascular risk. Because sleep disturbances increase with age particularly in women, we examined the relationship between sleep debt and ideal cardiovascular health (ICH) in older women. METHODS:Sleep debt is defined as the difference between self-reported total weekday and weekend sleep hours of at least 2 hours among women without apparent CVD and cancer participating in the Women's Health Stress Study follow-up cohort of female health professionals (N = 22 082). The ICH consisted of seven health factors and behaviors as defined by the American Heart Association Strategic 2020 goals including body mass index, smoking, physical activity, diet, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and glucose. RESULTS:Mean age was 72.1 ± 6.0 years. Compared to women with no sleep debt, women with sleep debt were more likely to be obese and have hypertension (pall < .05). Linear regression models adjusted for age and race/ethnicity revealed that sleep debt was significantly associated with poorer ICH (B = -0.13 [95% CI = -0.18 to -0.08]). The relationship was attenuated but remained significant after adjustment for education, income, depression/anxiety, cumulative stress, and snoring. CONCLUSION:Sleep debt was associated with poorer ICH, despite taking into account socioeconomic status and psychosocial factors. These results suggest that weekly sleep duration variation, possibly leading to circadian misalignment, may be associated with cardiovascular risk in older women.  https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsz149
Located in Retired Persons / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Externalizing trajectories predict elevated inflammation among adolescents exposed to early institutional rearing: A randomized clinical trial
  BACKGROUND: There has been mounting interest in the pathophysiological relation between inflammation and psychopathology. In this paper, we examined associations between internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and inflammation in adolescents with a history of severe psychosocial deprivation and children reared in typical family contexts. METHOD: The Bucharest Early Intervention Project is a longitudinal randomized trial of high-quality foster care as an alternative to institutional care. This report is based on 56 institutionalized children randomized to care as usual, 59 institutionalized children randomized to foster care, and 101 never institutionalized children who were recruited as an in-country comparison sample. Externalizing and internalizing behaviors were reported by parents and teachers at ages 8, 12, and 16. At age 16, C-reactive protein (CRP) was derived from blood spots in a subset of participants (n = 127). Multiple-group latent growth curve models were used to examine externalizing and internalizing trajectories and their associations with CRP. RESULTS: Among children assigned to care as usual, higher levels of externalizing behaviors at age 8, as well as smaller decreases in these behaviors from 8 to 16 years predicted higher levels of CRP at age 16. In the same group of children, higher internalizing behaviors at age 8, but not the rate of change in these behaviors, also predicted higher levels of CRP. In contrast, these relations were not observed in the children assigned to foster care and never institutionalized controls. CONCLUSIONS: Early institutional rearing is associated with a coupling of psychopathology and inflammation, whereas early placement into foster care buffers against these risks. These findings have implications for promoting healthy mental and physical development amongst institutionalized children.
Located in Retired Persons / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Effect of Change in Cumulative Psychosocial Stressors on Change in Body Mass Index Over Time
Introduction:  Increased psychosocial stress and obesity are both associated with elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the effect of change in cumulative psychosocial stressors (stressors) on change in body mass index (BMI) over time is unknown, particularly among older women, a population in whom weight change characterization is complex. Methods and Results:  We examined change in stressors in relation to change in BMI among 20,750 women without CVD or cancer at baseline (2012-13) participating in the Women’s Health Study (WHS) follow-up cohort. Stressors and BMI were collected at two time points 2012-13 (Baseline: T1; mean age=71.8 ± 5.8 years) and 2014-15 (Follow-up: T2; mean age=73.8 ± 5.8 years). Our measures of stressors were comprised of a composite of 8 domains, including acute (e.g. negative life events) and chronic (e.g., financial) stressors. We defined stressors over 3 years of follow-up into four categories: chronically low, delayed, acutely high, and chronically high; and BMI change was grouped into three categories (BMI: loss >3%, gain >3%, and maintenance ± 3%). Women with chronically high stress and delayed stress were younger, current smokers and reported more anxiety/depressive symptoms compared to other women. Women with chronically high stress were more likely to have diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia than their counterparts. Compared to women who maintained both their BMI and had low stress over time, women with delayed stress or chronically high stress had higher odds of decreased BMI [Delayed: Odds Ratio (OR)  1.16,  95% Confidence Interval (CI):  1.03-1.30 ; Chronically High:  OR=1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.24 ] ( Table 1 ). Conclusion:  Chronically high and delayed cumulative stress were associated with higher odds of weight loss in older women over 3 years. Future studies are needed to test associations between stressors and metabolic, hormonal and autonomic factors resulting in adiposity or musculoskeletal changes.
Located in Retired Persons / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications