Skip to content. | Skip to navigation

Personal tools


You are here: Home

Search results

416 items matching your search terms.
Filter the results.
Item type

New items since

Sort by relevance · date (newest first) · alphabetically
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Tobacco smoking, chewing habits, alcohol drinking and the risk of head and neck cancer in Nepal
Although tobacco smoking, pan chewing and alcohol drinking are important risk factors for head and neck cancer (HNC), the HNC risks conferred by products available in Nepal for these habits are unknown. We assessed the associations of tobacco smoking, chewing habits, and alcohol drinking with HNC risk in Nepal. A case–control study was conducted in Nepal with 549 incident HNC cases and 601 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. We observed increased HNC risk for tobacco smoking (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.06), chewing habits (OR: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.77, 3.23), and alcohol drinking (OR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.18). The population attributable fraction (PAF) was 24.3% for tobacco smoking, 39.9% for chewing habits and 23.0% for alcohol drinking. Tobacco smoking, chewing habits, and alcohol drinking might be responsible for 85.3% of HNC cases. Individuals who smoked tobacco, chewed products and drank alcohol had a 13‐fold increase in HNC risk (OR: 12.83; 95% CI: 6.91, 23.81) compared to individuals who did not have any of these habits. Both high frequency and long duration of these habits were strong risk factors for HNC among the Nepalese with clear dose–response trends. Preventive strategies against starting these habits and support for quitting these habits are necessary to decrease the incidence of HNC in Nepal.
Located in MPRC People / Amir Sapkota, Ph.D. / Amir Sapkota Publications
Michael Bader, American University and Visiting Scholar
Segregation in Place: Estimating the Contribution of White Flight to Racial Segregation in the 21st Century
Located in Coming Up
Article ReferenceAnalyzing Associations Between Chronic Disease Prevalence and Neighborhood Quality Through Google Street View Images
Deep learning and, specifically, convoltional neural networks (CNN) represent a class of powerful models that facilitate the understanding of many problems in computer vision. When combined with a reasonable amount of data, CNNs can outperform traditional models for many tasks, including image classification. In this work, we utilize these powerful tools with imagery data collected through Google Street View images to perform virtual audits of neighborhood characteristics. We further investigate different architectures for chronic disease prevalence regression through networks that are applied to sets of images rather than single images. We show quantitative results and demonstrate that our proposed architectures outperform the traditional regression approaches.
Located in MPRC People / Quynh Nguyen, Ph.D., M.S.P.H. / Quynh Nguyen Publications
Julia Steinberg featured in Reuters on women’s mental health following an abortion
No evidence found on women’s negative emotions following an abortion
Located in News
Marian MacDorman featured in Vox on Maternal Mortality Rate
U.S. lags behind in terms of maternal mortality rate
Located in News
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Associations Between Community-Level LGBTQ-Supportive Factors and Substance Use Among Sexual Minority Adolescents
Purpose:  Using representative school-based data and community-level primary data, we investigated how environmental factors (e.g., school and community climate) might be protective against substance use behaviors among a vulnerable population of adolescents. Methods:  We analyzed a sample of 2678 sexual minority adolescents using a combination of student-level data (British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey) and primary community-level data (assessing lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer [LGBTQ]-specific community and school environments). Using multilevel logistic regression models, we examined associations between lifetime substance use (alcohol, illegal drugs, marijuana, nonmedical use of prescription drugs, and smoking) and community-level predictors (community and school LGBTQ supportiveness). Results:  Above and beyond student characteristics (e.g., age and years living in Canada), sexual minority adolescents residing in communities with more LGBTQ supports (i.e., more supportive climates) had lower odds of lifetime illegal drug use (for boys and girls), marijuana use (for girls), and smoking (for girls). Specifically, in communities with more frequent LGBTQ events (such as Pride events), the odds of substance use among sexual minority adolescents living in those communities was lower compared with their counterparts living in communities with fewer LGBTQ supports. Conclusions:  The availability of LGBTQ community-level organizations, events, and programs may serve as protective factors for substance use among sexual minority adolescents. In particular, LGBTQ-supportive community factors were negatively associated with substance use, which has important implications for our investment in community programs, laws, and organizations that advance the visibility and rights of LGBTQ people.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
MPRC Seed Grant funding increased
New maximum of $20,000
Located in News
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Maternal postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing and internalizing behaviors
Maternal postpartum depression has been shown to be one of the main predictors of externalizing and internalizing behaviors in toddlers and adolescents. Research suggests that presence of such behaviors can be observed as early as infancy. The current study uses longitudinal data from 247 mothers to examine the relationship between postpartum depressive symptoms at 8 weeks and the infant's externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 12 months. In unadjusted linear regression models, there were associations between postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing behaviors (β=0.082, SE=0.032, p=0.012) and internalizing behaviors (β=0.111, SE=0.037, p=0.003). After controlling for potential confounding factors, including maternal age, race, education, home ownership, smoking status in the postpartum period, marital status, parenting stress, and happiness from becoming a parent, the associations between postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing (β=0.051, SE=0.034, p=0.138) and internalizing behaviors (β=0.077, SE=0.040, p=0.057) were reduced and became non-significant. Furthermore, in these models the total amount of variance explained was 17.2% (p<0.0001) for externalizing behaviors and 10.5% (p<0.01) for internalizing behaviors; the only significant predictor of externalizing behaviors was maternal age (β=-0.074, SE=0.030, p=0.014), and of internalizing behaviors was white non-Hispanic ethnicity (β=-1.33, SE=0.378, p=0.0005). A combined effect of the confounding factors seems to explain the finding of no significant independent association between postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing and internalizing behaviors.
Located in MPRC People / Julia Steinberg, Ph.D. / Julia Steinberg Publications
Jamie Trevitt, University of Maryland Baltimore County
Post-abortion Contraception Preference
Located in Coming Up
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Exposure to Particulate Matter and Adverse Birth Outcomes: A Comprehensive Review and Meta Analysis.
Increasing number of studies have investigated the impact of maternal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes, particularly low birth weight (LBW, <2,500 g at birth) and preterm birth (PTB, <37 completed weeks of gestation). We performed a comprehensive review of the peer-reviewed literature and a meta-analysis to quantify the association between maternal exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 2.5 and 10 μm (PM 2.5  and PM 10 ) during pregnancy and the risk of LBW and PTB. We identified 20 peer-reviewed articles providing quantitative estimate of exposure and outcome that met our selection criteria. There was significant heterogeneity between studies, particularly for findings related to PM 10  exposure (LBW,  I -squared 54%,  p  = 0.01; PTB,  I -squared = 73%,  p  < 0.01). Results from random-effect meta-analysis suggested a 9% increase in risk of LBW associated with a 10-μg/m 3  increase in PM 2.5  (combined odds ratios (OR), 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.90–1.32), but our 95% CI included the null value. We estimated a 15% increase in risk of PTB for each 10-μg/m 3  increase in PM 2.5  (combined OR, 1.15; CI, 1.14–1.16). The magnitude of risk associated with PM 10  exposure was smaller (2% per 10-μg/m 3  increase) and similar in size for both LBW and PTB, neither reaching formal statistical significance. We observed no significant publication bias, with  p  > 0.05 based on both Begg's and Egger's bias tests. Our results suggest that maternal exposure to PM, particularly PM 2.5  may have adverse effect on birth outcomes. Additional mechanistic studies are needed to understand the underlying mechanisms for this association.
Located in MPRC People / Amir Sapkota, Ph.D. / Amir Sapkota Publications