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Article ReferenceAssociation Between First Depressive Episode in the Same Year as Sexual Debut and Teenage Pregnancy
Purpose This study aimed to examine whether the timing of depression onset relative to age at sexual debut is associated with teenage pregnancy. Methods Using data from 1,025 adolescent girls who reported having had sex in the National Comorbidity Survey—Adolescent Supplement, we applied cox proportional hazards models to test whether depression onset before first sex, at the same age as first sex, or after first sex compared with no depression onset was associated with experiencing a first teenage pregnancy. We examined the unadjusted risk by depression status as well as risk adjusted for adolescents' race/ethnicity, marital status, poverty level, whether the adolescent lived in a metropolitan area, living status, age at first sex, parental education, and age of mother when the adolescent was born. Results In both unadjusted and adjusted models, we found that adolescents with depression onset at the same age as having initiated sex were at an increased risk of experiencing a teenage pregnancy (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08–5.96; adjusted HR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.15–6.34) compared with those with no depression onset. Moreover, compared with those with no depression onset, the risk of pregnancy for girls experiencing depression onset before first sex also increased but was not significant (adjusted HR = 1.5, 95% CI: .82–2.76). Conclusions Timing of first depressive episode relative to age at first sexual intercourse plays a critical role in determining the risk of teenage pregnancy. Timely diagnosis and treatment of depression may not only help adolescents' mental well-being but may also help them prevent teenage pregnancy.
Located in MPRC People / Julia Steinberg, Ph.D. / Julia Steinberg Publications
Article ReferenceAssociation Between First Depressive Episode in the Same Year as Sexual Debut and Teenage Pregnancy
Purpose This study aimed to examine whether the timing of depression onset relative to age at sexual debut is associated with teenage pregnancy. Methods Using data from 1,025 adolescent girls who reported having had sex in the National Comorbidity Survey—Adolescent Supplement, we applied cox proportional hazards models to test whether depression onset before first sex, at the same age as first sex, or after first sex compared with no depression onset was associated with experiencing a first teenage pregnancy. We examined the unadjusted risk by depression status as well as risk adjusted for adolescents' race/ethnicity, marital status, poverty level, whether the adolescent lived in a metropolitan area, living status, age at first sex, parental education, and age of mother when the adolescent was born. Results In both unadjusted and adjusted models, we found that adolescents with depression onset at the same age as having initiated sex were at an increased risk of experiencing a teenage pregnancy (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08–5.96; adjusted HR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.15–6.34) compared with those with no depression onset. Moreover, compared with those with no depression onset, the risk of pregnancy for girls experiencing depression onset before first sex also increased but was not significant (adjusted HR = 1.5, 95% CI: .82–2.76). Conclusions Timing of first depressive episode relative to age at first sexual intercourse plays a critical role in determining the risk of teenage pregnancy. Timely diagnosis and treatment of depression may not only help adolescents' mental well-being but may also help them prevent teenage pregnancy.
Located in MPRC People / Marie Thoma, Ph.D. / Marie Thoma Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Decision rightness and relief predominate over the years following an abortion
A recent analysis from the Turnaway study focused on women who were just under the gestational limit of a clinic and received an abortion and those who had first trimester abortions to examine trends in decisional rightness and negative and positive emotions over 5 years after the abortion. Specifically, Rocca et al. (in press) analyzed these data and found that women were overwhemingly sure of their decision: 95% felt their decision was the right one at each assessment after their abortion, and the predicted probability of abortion being the right decision was 99% at 5 years afterwards. Relief was the most common emotion felt by women, and negative emotions or decision regret did not emerge over time. These results and others from studies conducted globally counter assertions by abortion opponents that women are not certain of their decisions, or that women regret or have mainly negative emotions about their abortions if not in the short run then after a long period of time. This commentary addresses not only these findings but also relevant U.S. abortion policies based on these unsubstantiated claims. Policies should not be based on the notions that women are unsure of their decision, come to regret, it or have negative emotions because there is no evidence to support these claims.
Located in MPRC People / Julia Steinberg, Ph.D. / Julia Steinberg Publications
Depression and contraceptive behavioral patterns: Analyzing two longitudinal studies
Julia Steinberg, Family Science
Located in Resources / / Seed Grant Program / Seed Grants Awarded
Effects of Depression on Contraceptive Behavior
Julia Steinberg will use an NICHD K01 grant to investigate the impact of depression throughout the reproductive cycle
Located in Research / Selected Research
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Intimate Partner Violence and Effectiveness Level of Contraceptive Selection Post-Abortion
Materials and Methods:  Using data on 245 women who were attending an urban hospital abortion clinic, we assessed whether women had ever experienced emotional, physical, or sexual IPV. Effectiveness of women's post-abortion contraceptive method selection was categorized into high (intrauterine device [IUD] and implant), moderate (pill, patch, ring, and shot), and low (condoms, emergency contraception, and none) effectiveness. Using multinomial logistic regression, we examined the relationship between number of types of IPV experienced and post-abortion contraceptive method effectiveness, adjusting for sociodemographics, prior abortion, having children, abortion trimester, importance of avoiding pregnancy in the next year, pre-abortion psychological distress, and effectiveness level of the contraceptive method women were planning to use before contraceptive counseling. Results:  Twenty-seven percent (27%) of women experienced two or three types of IPV, 35% experienced one IPV type, and 38% experienced no IPV. Compared to women with no histories of IPV, women who experienced two or more types of IPV during their lifetimes were more likely to choose contraceptive methods with moderate effectiveness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 5.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–24.23, p = 0.035) and high effectiveness (AOR = 5.01, 95% CI: 1.12–22.39, p = 0.035) than those with low effectiveness. Conclusion:  Women who experienced two or more types of lifetime IPV selected more effective contraceptive methods post-abortion. Access to contraceptives that are not partner dependent, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC), may be particularly important for women who have experienced multiple types of IPV.
Located in MPRC People / Mona Mittal, Ph.D. / Mona Mittal Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Intimate Partner Violence and Effectiveness Level of Contraceptive Selection Post-Abortion
Materials and Methods:  Using data on 245 women who were attending an urban hospital abortion clinic, we assessed whether women had ever experienced emotional, physical, or sexual IPV. Effectiveness of women's post-abortion contraceptive method selection was categorized into high (intrauterine device [IUD] and implant), moderate (pill, patch, ring, and shot), and low (condoms, emergency contraception, and none) effectiveness. Using multinomial logistic regression, we examined the relationship between number of types of IPV experienced and post-abortion contraceptive method effectiveness, adjusting for sociodemographics, prior abortion, having children, abortion trimester, importance of avoiding pregnancy in the next year, pre-abortion psychological distress, and effectiveness level of the contraceptive method women were planning to use before contraceptive counseling. Results:  Twenty-seven percent (27%) of women experienced two or three types of IPV, 35% experienced one IPV type, and 38% experienced no IPV. Compared to women with no histories of IPV, women who experienced two or more types of IPV during their lifetimes were more likely to choose contraceptive methods with moderate effectiveness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 5.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–24.23, p = 0.035) and high effectiveness (AOR = 5.01, 95% CI: 1.12–22.39, p = 0.035) than those with low effectiveness. Conclusion:  Women who experienced two or more types of lifetime IPV selected more effective contraceptive methods post-abortion. Access to contraceptives that are not partner dependent, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC), may be particularly important for women who have experienced multiple types of IPV.
Located in MPRC People / Julia Steinberg, Ph.D. / Julia Steinberg Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Intimate Partner Violence and Effectiveness Level of Contraceptive Selection Post-Abortion
Materials and Methods:  Using data on 245 women who were attending an urban hospital abortion clinic, we assessed whether women had ever experienced emotional, physical, or sexual IPV. Effectiveness of women's post-abortion contraceptive method selection was categorized into high (intrauterine device [IUD] and implant), moderate (pill, patch, ring, and shot), and low (condoms, emergency contraception, and none) effectiveness. Using multinomial logistic regression, we examined the relationship between number of types of IPV experienced and post-abortion contraceptive method effectiveness, adjusting for sociodemographics, prior abortion, having children, abortion trimester, importance of avoiding pregnancy in the next year, pre-abortion psychological distress, and effectiveness level of the contraceptive method women were planning to use before contraceptive counseling. Results:  Twenty-seven percent (27%) of women experienced two or three types of IPV, 35% experienced one IPV type, and 38% experienced no IPV. Compared to women with no histories of IPV, women who experienced two or more types of IPV during their lifetimes were more likely to choose contraceptive methods with moderate effectiveness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 5.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–24.23, p = 0.035) and high effectiveness (AOR = 5.01, 95% CI: 1.12–22.39, p = 0.035) than those with low effectiveness. Conclusion:  Women who experienced two or more types of lifetime IPV selected more effective contraceptive methods post-abortion. Access to contraceptives that are not partner dependent, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC), may be particularly important for women who have experienced multiple types of IPV.
Located in MPRC People / Marie Thoma, Ph.D. / Marie Thoma Publications
Julia Steinberg featured in Reuters on women’s mental health following an abortion
No evidence found on women’s negative emotions following an abortion
Located in News
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Maternal postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing and internalizing behaviors
Maternal postpartum depression has been shown to be one of the main predictors of externalizing and internalizing behaviors in toddlers and adolescents. Research suggests that presence of such behaviors can be observed as early as infancy. The current study uses longitudinal data from 247 mothers to examine the relationship between postpartum depressive symptoms at 8 weeks and the infant's externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 12 months. In unadjusted linear regression models, there were associations between postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing behaviors (β=0.082, SE=0.032, p=0.012) and internalizing behaviors (β=0.111, SE=0.037, p=0.003). After controlling for potential confounding factors, including maternal age, race, education, home ownership, smoking status in the postpartum period, marital status, parenting stress, and happiness from becoming a parent, the associations between postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing (β=0.051, SE=0.034, p=0.138) and internalizing behaviors (β=0.077, SE=0.040, p=0.057) were reduced and became non-significant. Furthermore, in these models the total amount of variance explained was 17.2% (p<0.0001) for externalizing behaviors and 10.5% (p<0.01) for internalizing behaviors; the only significant predictor of externalizing behaviors was maternal age (β=-0.074, SE=0.030, p=0.014), and of internalizing behaviors was white non-Hispanic ethnicity (β=-1.33, SE=0.378, p=0.0005). A combined effect of the confounding factors seems to explain the finding of no significant independent association between postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing and internalizing behaviors.
Located in MPRC People / Julia Steinberg, Ph.D. / Julia Steinberg Publications