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Population Health Trends among Hetrosexual and Sexual Minority Adults
Jessica N. Fish, Family Science, investigates sexual-orientation-related disparities in mental, behavioral, and physical health
Located in Resources / / Seed Grant Program / Seed Grants Awarded
Positioning population studies to understand the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic
Faculty Associate Sonalde Desai contributes to IUSSP panel session
Located in Coming Up
File Troff document (with manpage macros)Positively Experiencing Daily Life
John P. Robinson, University of Maryland; 2014-004
Located in Research / Working Papers / WP Documents
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Prevalence and Correlates of Alcohol Consumption During Pregnancy in Georgia: Evidence from a National Survey
Background: While alcohol consumption is pervasive in the country of Georgia, the extent of alcohol consumption among pregnant women is yet to be examined. The goal of this study is to examine prevalence and correlates of alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Georgia. Methods: Using data from the World Health Organization’s Stepwise approach to noncommunicable disease risk factor surveillance in Georgia, this study examined prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of alcohol use among pregnant women in Georgia. The study sample of reproductive age (18-45) women was drawn from the STEPS, which is a large and nationally representative survey of adults with a 95% participation rate. Frequencies, multivariate analyses and related statistics were computed to describe and study associations among the target population and the odds of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Results: Only 66 individuals in the sample were pregnant. About 13% of pregnant women consumed alcohol in the past 30 days and nearly 70% of them engaged in binge drinking on at least one occasion. Pregnant women who were young, married, homemakers, living in two-member households and in the lowest bracket of monthly income had the highest likelihood of consuming alcohol and binge drinking. The study results were statistically significant (p< .05). Conclusions: This study reveals the magnitude of alcohol consumption and binge drinking among reproductive age women in Georgia. This study also shows prevalence and correlates of alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Georgia. The results identify characteristics of women who are most likely to use alcohol during pregnancy. Given that, alcohol use is a modifiable behavioral risk factor, the findings in this study provide the foundation for evidence-based prevention strategies that target pregnant and reproductive age women.
Located in MPRC People / Manouchehr (Mitch) Mokhtari, Ph.D. / Mitch Mokhtari Publications
Article ReferencePsychosocial Stress and Overweight and Obesity: Findings From the Chicago Community Adult Health Study
  Background Psychosocial stress has been implicated as a risk factor for overweight and obesity. However, research on psychosocial stressors and overweight and obesity has typically focused on single stressors in isolation, which may overestimate the impact of a specific stressor and fail to describe the role of cumulative stress on overweight and obesity risk. Purpose This study explores the association between overweight/obesity and cumulative exposure to a wide range of psychosocial stressors, among a multiracial/ethnic sample of adults. Methods Using secondary data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (n = 2,983), we conducted multinomial logistic regression analyses to quantify associations between eight psychosocial stressors, individually and in combination, and measured overweight and obesity, adjusted for sociodemographic factors, alcohol use and smoking. Results In separated covariate-adjusted models, childhood adversities (odds ratio [OR] = 1.16; confidence interval [CI] = [1.03, 1.30]), acute life events (OR = 1.18; CI = [1.04, 1.34]), financial strain (OR = 1.30; CI = [1.15, 1.47]), and relationship stressors (OR = 1.18; CI = [1.04, 1.35]) were associated with increased odds of obesity. In a model adjusted for all stressors simultaneously, financial strain was the only stressor independently associated with overweight (OR = 1.17; CI = [1.00, 1.36]) and obesity (OR = 1.21; CI = [1.05, 1.39]). Participants with stress exposure in the highest quintile across 2, 3, or ≥4 (compared to no) types of stressors had significantly higher odds of obesity. Conclusions Multiple types of stressors may be risk factors for obesity, and cumulative exposure to these stressors may increase the odds of obesity. Reducing exposure to stressors at the population level may have the potential to contribute to reducing the burden of obesity.  
Located in Retired Persons / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications
Public Health Researchers Win Data Contract to Study LGBTQ Health Disparities
Access to new dataset opens up research opportunities
Located in Research / Selected Research
Race / Ethnic Differentials in the Health Implications of Grandparents Caring for Grandchildren,
Faculty Associate Feinian Chen studies health implications for grandparents caring for grandchildren
Located in Research / Selected Research
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Race and income moderate the association between depressive symptoms and obesity
Complex interrelationships between race, sex, obesity and depression have been well-documented. Because of differences in associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and health by race, determining the role of SES may help to further explicate these relationships. The aim of this study was to determine how race and income interact with obesity on depression. Combining data from the 2007-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, depressive symptoms was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and obesity was assessed as body mass index ≥30 kg/m 2 . Three-way interactions between race, income and obesity on depressive symptoms were determined using ordered regression models. Significant interactions between race, middle income and obesity (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.22-1.96) suggested that, among white women, obesity is positively associated with depressive symptoms across income levels, while obesity was not associated with depression for African American women at any income level. Obesity was only associated with depressive symptoms among middle-income white men (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.02-2.03) and among high-income African American men (OR = 4.65, 95% CI = 1.48-14.59). The associations between obesity and depressive symptoms vary greatly by race and income. Findings from this study underscore the importance of addressing obesity and depression among higher income African American men.
Located in Retired Persons / Caryn Bell, Ph.D. / Caryn Bell Publications
Race, Gender, and Obesity: How the Social Environment Constrains or Enables Physical Activity
Faculty associate Rashawn Ray investigates the social and environmental changes needed in order to remove neighborhood barriers to regular physical exercise
Located in Research / Selected Research
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Racial discrimination and telomere shortening among African Americans: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study
OBJECTIVE: Telomeres are protective sequences of DNA capping the ends of chromosomes that shorten over time. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is posited to reflect the replicative history of cells and general systemic aging of the organism. Chronic stress exposure leads to accelerated LTL shortening, which has been linked to increased susceptibility to and faster progression of aging-related diseases. This study examined longitudinal associations between LTL and experiences of racial discrimination, a qualitatively unique source of minority psychosocial stress, among African Americans. METHOD: Data are from 391 African Americans in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Telomere Ancillary Study. We examined the number of domains in which racial discrimination was experienced in relation to LTL collected in Years 15 and 25 (Y15: 2000/2001; Y25: 2010/2011). Multivariable linear regression examined if racial discrimination was associated with LTL. Latent change score analysis (LCS) examined changes in racial discrimination and LTL in relation to one another. RESULTS: Controlling for racial discrimination at Y15, multivariable linear regression analyses indicated that racial discrimination at Y25 was significantly associated with LTL at Y25. This relationship remained robust after adjusting for LTL at Y15 (b = -.019, p = .015). Consistent with this finding, LCS revealed that increases in experiences of racial discrimination were associated with faster 10-year LTL shortening (b = -.019, p = .015). CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to evidence that racial discrimination contributes to accelerated physiologic weathering and health declines among African Americans through its impact on biological systems, including via its effects on telomere attrition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
Located in Retired Persons / Natalie Slopen, Sc.D. / Natalie Slopen Publications