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Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Life and Death in the American City: Men’s Life Expectancy in 25 Major American Cities From 1990 to 2015
The past several decades have witnessed growing geographic disparities in life expectancy within the United States, yet the mortality experience of U.S. cities has received little attention. We examine changes in men’s life expectancy at birth for the 25 largest U.S. cities from 1990 to 2015, using mortality data with city of residence identifiers. We reveal remarkable increases in life expectancy for several U.S. cities. Men’s life expectancy increased by 13.7 years in San Francisco and Washington, DC, and by 11.8 years in New York between 1990 and 2015, during which overall U.S. life expectancy increased by just 4.8 years. A significant fraction of gains in the top-performing cities relative to the U.S. average is explained by reductions in HIV/AIDS and homicide during the 1990s and 2000s. Although black men tended to see larger life expectancy gains than white men in most cities, changes in socioeconomic and racial population composition also contributed to these trends.
Located in MPRC People / Michel Boudreaux, Ph.D. / Michel Boudreaux Publications
Michel Boudreaux's study on Men's Life Expectancy published in Demography
Men's life expectancy has seen "remarkable increase" for several U.S. cities
Located in News
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Self-Rated Health and Structural Racism Indicated by County-Level Racial Inequalities in Socioeconomic Status: The Role of Urban-Rural Classification
Recent attention to the interrelationship between racism, socioeconomic status (SES) and health has led to a small, but growing literature of empirical work on the role of structural racism in population health. Area-level racial inequities in SES are an indicator of structural racism, and the associations between structural racism indicators and self-rated health are unknown. Further, because urban-rural differences have been observed in population health and are associated with different manifestations of structural racism, explicating the role of urban-rural classification is warranted. This study examined the associations between racial inequities in SES and self-rated health by county urban-rural classification. Using data from County Health Rankings and American Communities Surveys, black-white ratios of SES were regressed on rates of fair/poor health in U.S. counties. Racial inequities in homeownership were negatively associated with fair/poor health ( β  = −0.87, s.e. = 0.18), but racial inequities in unemployment were positively associated with fair/poor health ( β  = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01). The associations between structural racism and fair/poor health varied by county urban-rural classification. Potential mechanisms include the concentration of resources in racially segregated counties with high racial inequities that lead to better health outcomes, but are associated with extreme black SES disadvantage. Racial inequities in SES are a social justice imperative with implications for population health that can be targeted by urban-rural classification and other social contextual characteristics.
Located in MPRC People / Caryn Bell, Ph.D. / Caryn Bell Publications
Article ReferenceAnalyzing Associations Between Chronic Disease Prevalence and Neighborhood Quality Through Google Street View Images
Deep learning and, specifically, convoltional neural networks (CNN) represent a class of powerful models that facilitate the understanding of many problems in computer vision. When combined with a reasonable amount of data, CNNs can outperform traditional models for many tasks, including image classification. In this work, we utilize these powerful tools with imagery data collected through Google Street View images to perform virtual audits of neighborhood characteristics. We further investigate different architectures for chronic disease prevalence regression through networks that are applied to sets of images rather than single images. We show quantitative results and demonstrate that our proposed architectures outperform the traditional regression approaches.
Located in MPRC People / Quynh Nguyen, Ph.D., M.S.P.H. / Quynh Nguyen Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Associations Between Community-Level LGBTQ-Supportive Factors and Substance Use Among Sexual Minority Adolescents
Purpose:  Using representative school-based data and community-level primary data, we investigated how environmental factors (e.g., school and community climate) might be protective against substance use behaviors among a vulnerable population of adolescents. Methods:  We analyzed a sample of 2678 sexual minority adolescents using a combination of student-level data (British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey) and primary community-level data (assessing lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer [LGBTQ]-specific community and school environments). Using multilevel logistic regression models, we examined associations between lifetime substance use (alcohol, illegal drugs, marijuana, nonmedical use of prescription drugs, and smoking) and community-level predictors (community and school LGBTQ supportiveness). Results:  Above and beyond student characteristics (e.g., age and years living in Canada), sexual minority adolescents residing in communities with more LGBTQ supports (i.e., more supportive climates) had lower odds of lifetime illegal drug use (for boys and girls), marijuana use (for girls), and smoking (for girls). Specifically, in communities with more frequent LGBTQ events (such as Pride events), the odds of substance use among sexual minority adolescents living in those communities was lower compared with their counterparts living in communities with fewer LGBTQ supports. Conclusions:  The availability of LGBTQ community-level organizations, events, and programs may serve as protective factors for substance use among sexual minority adolescents. In particular, LGBTQ-supportive community factors were negatively associated with substance use, which has important implications for our investment in community programs, laws, and organizations that advance the visibility and rights of LGBTQ people.
Located in MPRC People / Jessica N Fish, Ph.D. / Jessica N Fish Publications
Race, Gender, and Obesity: How the Social Environment Constrains or Enables Physical Activity
Faculty associate Rashawn Ray investigates the social and environmental changes needed in order to remove neighborhood barriers to regular physical exercise
Located in Research / Selected Research
Affordable Care for All?
Faculty associate Jerome Dugan investigates the relationship between socioeconomic status, health insurance coverage, and affordable quality care
Located in Research / Selected Research
Incollection Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)The Informative Role of Advertising and Experience in Dynamic Brand Choice: an Application to the Ready-to-Eat Cereal Market
We study how consumers make brand choices when they have limited information. In a market of experience goods with frequent product entry and exit, consumers face two types of information problems: first, they have limited information about a product’s existence; second, even if they know a product exists, they do not have full information about its quality until they purchase and consume it. In this chapter, we incorporate purchase experience and brand advertising as two sources of information and examine how consumers use them in a dynamic process. The model is estimated using the Nielsen Homescan data in Los Angeles, which consist of grocery shopping history for 1,402 households over 6 years. Taking ready-to-eat cereal as an example, we find that consumers learn about new products quickly and form strong habits. More specifically, advertising has a significant effect in informing consumers of a product’s existence and signaling product quality. However, advertising’s prestige effect is not significant. We also find that incorporating limited information about a product’s existence leads to larger estimates of the price elasticity. Based on the structural estimates, we simulate consumer choices under three counterfactual experiments to evaluate brand marketing strategies and a policy on banning children-oriented cereal advertising. Simulation suggests that the advertising ban encourages consumers to consume less sugar and more fiber, but their expenditures are also higher because they switch to family and adult brands, which are more expensive.
Located in MPRC People / Ginger Zhe Jin, Ph.D. / Ginger Zhe Jin Publications
I-Health and Well Being Working Group
Provides a forum for health scholars across the UMD campus
Located in Resources / Resources for Scholar Development / Working Groups
Stephen Gilman, NICHD
The developmental origins of disparities in common mental disorders
Located in Coming Up