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Article ReferenceThe Insights and Illusions of Consumption Measurements
While household well-being derives from long-term average rates of consumption, welfare comparisons typically rely on shorter-duration survey measurements. We develop a new strategy to identify the distribution of these long-term rates by leveraging a large-scale randomization in Iraq that elicited repeated short-duration measurements from diaries and recall questions. Identification stems from diary-recall differences in reports from the same household, does not require reports to be error-free, and hinges on a research design with broad replicability. Our strategy delivers practical and costeffective suggestions for designing survey modules to yield the closest measurements of consumption well-being. In addition, we find little empirical support for the claim that acquisition diaries yield the most accurate measurement of poverty and inequality and offer new insights to interpret and reconcile diary-recall differences in household surveys.
Located in MPRC People / Erich Battistin, Ph.D. / Erich Battistin Publications
Article ReferencePrimer on Costs of Action/ Inaction and Communication to Policymakers
To support the African ChemObs project (the Integrated Health and Environment Observatories and Legal and Institutional Strengthening for the Sound Management of Chemicals in Africa), we provide a critical review of methodologies for valuing the health damages from policy inaction associated with chemical exposures. In particular, we discuss how disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and IQ loss should be valued. We conclude by providing advice on communicating the costs of inaction and the benefits and costs of action to policymakers. By the social costs of inaction, we mean the private or market costs, as well as the external costs, from pollution exposures compared with no exposure. Knowledge of these damages can then lead to policies designed to force investment and operating decisions in the market to account for (internalize) such costs/damages. The costs of inaction can be distinguished from the benefits and costs of action. The benefits of action are the value of, for example, the health improvements from regulations or other forms of action. These actions usually come with a cost of resources to bring about such actions. The net benefits to society of an action are the benefits minus the costs of action. In general, as regulations of chemicals rarely eliminate all exposures, the costs of inaction generally exceed (in absolute terms) the benefits of action.
Located in MPRC People / Maureen Cropper, Ph.D. / Maureen Cropper Publications
Article ReferenceTop 10 Blockchain Predictions for the (Near) Future of Healthcare
To review blockchain lessons learned in 2018 and near-future predictions for blockchain in healthcare, Blockchain in Healthcare Today (BHTY) asked the world's blockchain in healthcare experts to share their insights. Here, our internationally-renowned BHTY peer-review board discusses their major predictions. Based on their responses, presented in detail below, ten major themes (Table ) for the future of blockchain in healthcare will emerge over the 12 months.
Located in MPRC People / Manouchehr (Mitch) Mokhtari, Ph.D. / Mitch Mokhtari Publications
Techreport ReferenceAugmenting the LBD with Firm-Level Revenue
This document describes the data contained in the firm level revenue-augmented Longitudinal Business Database (RE-LBD) and provides background on the construction of the data. The revenue-augmented LBD is a firm level data created by adding revenue data from the detailed tax receipts variables contained in the Standard Statistical Establishment List (SSEL) and the Business Register (BR). Key variables for the construction of the revenue variable include the FIRMID identifying the firm, revenue measures collected from income tax filings, industry classification codes detailing the activities of the employer, the legal form of organization and the year associated with that filing. The RE-LBD starts in year 1997 and ends in 2015.
Located in MPRC People / John Haltiwanger, Ph.D. / John Haltiwanger Publications
Misc Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)The Effects of Non-Contributory Pensions on Material and Subjective Well Being
Public expenditures on non-contributory pensions are equivalent to at least 1 percent of GDP in several countries in Latin America and is expected to increase. We explore the effect of noncontributory pensions on the well-being of the beneficiary population by studying the Pension 65 program in Peru, which uses a poverty eligibility threshold. We find that the program reduced the average score of beneficiaries on the Geriatric Depression Scale by nine percent and reduced the proportion of older adults doing paid work by four percentage points. Moreover, households with a beneficiary increased their level of consumption by 40 percent. All these effects are consistent with the findings of Galiani, Gertler and Bando (2016) in their study on a non-contributory pension scheme in Mexico. Thus, we conclude that the effects of non-contributory pensions on well-being in rural Mexico can be largely generalized to Peru
Located in MPRC People / Sebastian Galiani, Ph.D. / Sebastian Galiani Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)The Importance of Informal Work in Supplementing Household Income
According to a Federal Reserve survey, nearly 30 percent of respondents reported informal work for pay in the prior month, ranging from online work to personal services to selling goods. Informal work plays a particularly important role in the household finances of minorities, the unemployed, and those who report financial hardship. Independent contractors, other self-employed, and those with unpredictable work schedules are especially reliant on informal work to supplement their income, possibly symptomatic of inadequate or unstable earnings associated with these types of work.
Located in MPRC People / Katharine Abraham, Ph.D. / Katharine Abraham Publications
Article Reference Troff document (with manpage macros)Voting for Democracy: Chile's Plebiscito and the Electoral Participation of a Generation
This paper assesses if voting for democracy affects long-term electoral participation. We study the effects of participating in Chile's 1988 plebiscite, which determined whether democracy would be reinstated after a 15-year long military dictatorship. Taking advantage of individual-level voting data for upwards of 13 million Chileans, we implement an age-based RD design comparing long run registration and turnout rates across marginally eligible and ineligible individuals. We find that Plebiscite eligibility (participation) significantly increased electoral turnout three decades later, reaching 1.8 (3.3) percentage points in the 2017 Presidential election. These effects are robust to different specifications and distinctive to the 1988 referendum. We discuss potential mechanisms concluding that the scale of initial mobilization explains the estimated effects. We find that plebiscite eligibility induced a sizable share of less educated voters to register to vote compared to eligibles in other upstream elections. Since less educated voters tended to support Chile's governing left-wing coalition, we argue that the plebiscite contributed to the emergence of one party rule the twenty years following democratization.
Located in MPRC People / Sergio Urzua, Ph.D. / Sergio Urzua Publications
Vivian Hoffman studies women's sanitation impact in developing countries
Environmental and social impacts for women deriving from menstrual sanitation practices
Located in Research / Selected Research
Exploring the culture of despair
Faculty Associate Melissa Kearney and Philip B. Levine find that inequality trumps location in predicting early childbearing out of wedlock
Located in Research / Selected Research
Job creation linked to company age, not size
Faculty Associate John Haltiwanger's paper with two Census Bureau economists challenges conventional wisdom
Located in Research / Selected Research